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Formation of environmentally friendly chloroorganic compounds technology by sewage and by-products utilization
The processes presented in the study enables the separation and disposal of the chloroorganic compounds as by-products from the vinyl chloride plant by using the dichlorethane method and also from the production of propylene oxide by the chlorohydrine method. The integrated purification method of steam stripping and adsorption onto activated carbon allows a complete removal and recovery of the chloroorganic compounds from waste water. Waste distillation fraction is formed during the production of vinyl chloride. 1,1,2-trichloroethane separated from the above fraction, can be processed to vinylidene chloride and further to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. 2,3-Dichloropropene, 2-chloroallyl alcohol, 2-chloroallylamine, 2-chlorothioallyl alcohol or bis(2-chloroallylamine) can be obtained from 1,2,3-trichloropropane. In the propylene oxide plant the waste 1,2-dichloropropane is formed, which can be ammonolysed to 1,2-diaminopropane or used for the production of β-methyltaurine. Other chloroorganic compounds are subjected to chlorinolysis which results in the following compounds: perchloroethylene, tetrachloromethane, hexachloroethane, haxachlorobutadiene and hexachlorobenzene. The substitution of the milk of lime by the soda lye solution during the saponification of chlorohydrine eliminates the formation of the CaCl2 waste.
LITERATURE CITED 1. Jia, P., Zhang, M., Hu, L., Feng, G. & Zhou, Y. (2015). Synthesis of novel caged phosphate esters and their flame retardant effect on poly(vinylchloride) blends. Chem. Lett. 44, 1220–1222. DOI: 10.1246/cl.150374. 2. Silva, M.A.D., Vieira, M.G.A., Maçumoto, A.C.G. & Beppu, M.M. (2011). Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and natural rubber films plasticized with a natural polymeric plasticizer obtained through polyesterification of rice fatty acid. Polym. Test . 30, 478–484. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2011.03.008 . 3. Saeki, Y
Influence of the coating process parameters on the quality of PUR/PVP hydrogel coatings for PVC medical devices
To decrease friction factor and enhance the biocompatibility of medical devices manufactured from poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, the surface modification with wear resistant polyurethane/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PUR/PVP) hydrogel coating can be applied. In the present work substrates were dip-coated with PVP and PUR solutions and thermally cured. The variable process parameters were: solvent system; concentration of polymers (1, 2 or 3% w/v); coating baths temperature (22, 38 and 55°C); drying temperature (32, 50 and 67°C); length of break between process steps (5, 30 and 90 s); and solutions storage time (up to 72 hrs). The quality of coatings was determined by friction coefficients against porcine aorta, weights of the deposited layer and the swelling capacity. The solvent system and polymers concentration were crucial factors. The increased temperature of coating solutions caused increased deposition but decreased durability. The most lubricious samples were dried in 50°C. Coatings from the solutions prepared 24h prior to use had better properties than those from fresh solutions.
). Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and natural rubber films plasticized with a natural polymeric plasticizer obtained through polyesterification of rice fatty acid. Polym. Test , 30, 478–484. DOI: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2011.03.008. 15. Bueno-Ferrer, C., Garrigós, M.C. & Jiménez, A. (2012). Characterization and thermal stability of poly(vinylchloride) plasticized with epoxidized soybean oil for food packaging. Polymer Degrad. Stab. , 95, 2207–2212. DOI: 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2010.01.027. 16. Karmalm, P., Hjertberg, T., Jansson, A. & Dahl, R. (2009). Thermal stability of poly(vinyl
Efficient methods of utilization of waste chloroorganic compounds coming from waste water and the waste streams formed e.g. in the production of vinyl chloride by dichloroethane method and in the production of propylene oxide by chlorohydrin method have been presented. First the separation of chloroorganic wastes by the adsorption methods has been described in the article. Three valuable methods of chlorocompounds utilization have been then discussed. The first one is isomerization of 1,1,2-trichloroethane to 1,1,1-trichloroethane as the valuable product with less toxicity than a substrate. The second method is ammonolysis of waste 1,2-dichloropropane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The third described method is chlorolysis. This method can be used for the utilization of all types of waste chloroorganics.