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LITERATURE CITED 1. Ang, D.T., Khong, Y.K. & Gan, S.N. (2014). Palm oil--based compound as environmentally friendly plasticizer for poly(vinyl chloride). J. Vinyl Addit. Technol. 22 (1), 80–87. DOI 10.1002/vnl.21434. 2. Hsu, N.Y., Liu, Y.C., Lee, C.W. & Su, H.J. (2017). Higher moisture content is associated with greater emissions of DEHP from PVC wallpaper. Environ. Res. 152, 1–6. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.09.027. 3. Pyeon, H.B., Park, J.E. & Done, H.S.(2017). Non-phthalate plasticizer from camphor for flexible PVC with a wide range of available temperature

References 1. Chen, J.X., Li, Y., Wang, J., Huang, K., Li, X. & Nie, J. Jiang. (2017). Synthesis and application of environmental soybean oil-based epoxidized glycidyl ester plasticizer for poly(vinyl chloride). European J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 119 (5). DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201600216. 2. Bocqué, M., Voirin, C., Lapinte, V., Caillol, S. & Robin, J.. (2016). Petro-based and bio-based plasticizers: Chemical structures to plasticizing properties. J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polymer Physics. 54 (1):11-33. DOI: 10.1002/pola.27917. 3. Choi, W., Chung, J.W. & Kwak, S. (2014

References Du JT, Tseng MT, Tamurro CH. The effect of repeated vinyl chloride exposure on rat hepatic metabolizing enzyme. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1982;62:1-10. Wong RH, Wang JD, Hsieh LL, Cheng TJ. XRCC1, CYP2E1 and ALDH2 genetic polymorphisms and sister chromatid exchange frequency alterations amongst vinyl chloride monomer-exposed polyvinyl chloride workers. Arch Toxicol 2003;77(8):433-40. Schindler J, Li Y, Marion MJ, Paroly A, Brandt-Rauf PW. The effect of genetic polymorphisms in the vinyl chloride metabolic pathway on mutagenic risk. J Hum Genet 2007

LITERATURE CITED 1. Nagy, T.T., Kelen, T., Turcsányi, B. & Tüdös, F. (1980). The reinitiation mechanism of HCl catalysis in PVC degradation. Polym. Bull. 2(1), 77–82. DOI: 10.1007/BF00275557. 2. Braun, D. (1981). Thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride), in Development in polymer degradation, Grassie, N., Eds.; Appl. Sci. Publ.: London, pp 101. 3. Vrandečić, N.S., Klarić, I. & Roje, U. (2001). Effect of Ca/Zn stabiliser on thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride)/chlorinated polyethylene blends. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 74(2), 203–212. http://dx.doi.org/10

References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 1997. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1997. Marion MJ, Froment O, Trepo C. Activation of Kiras gene by point mutation in human liver angiosarcoma associated with vinyl chloride exposure. Mol Carcinogenesis 1991;4:450-4. Stern MC, Umbach DM, van Gils CH, Lunn RM, Taylor JA. DNA repair gene XRCC1 polymorphisms, smoking, and bladder cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10:125-31. Nelson HH, Kelsey KT, Moh LA, Karagas MR

Formation of environmentally friendly chloroorganic compounds technology by sewage and by-products utilization

The processes presented in the study enables the separation and disposal of the chloroorganic compounds as by-products from the vinyl chloride plant by using the dichlorethane method and also from the production of propylene oxide by the chlorohydrine method. The integrated purification method of steam stripping and adsorption onto activated carbon allows a complete removal and recovery of the chloroorganic compounds from waste water. Waste distillation fraction is formed during the production of vinyl chloride. 1,1,2-trichloroethane separated from the above fraction, can be processed to vinylidene chloride and further to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. 2,3-Dichloropropene, 2-chloroallyl alcohol, 2-chloroallylamine, 2-chlorothioallyl alcohol or bis(2-chloroallylamine) can be obtained from 1,2,3-trichloropropane. In the propylene oxide plant the waste 1,2-dichloropropane is formed, which can be ammonolysed to 1,2-diaminopropane or used for the production of β-methyltaurine. Other chloroorganic compounds are subjected to chlorinolysis which results in the following compounds: perchloroethylene, tetrachloromethane, hexachloroethane, haxachlorobutadiene and hexachlorobenzene. The substitution of the milk of lime by the soda lye solution during the saponification of chlorohydrine eliminates the formation of the CaCl2 waste.

LITERATURE CITED 1. Jia, P., Zhang, M., Hu, L., Feng, G. & Zhou, Y. (2015). Synthesis of novel caged phosphate esters and their flame retardant effect on poly(vinyl chloride) blends. Chem. Lett. 44, 1220–1222. DOI: 10.1246/cl.150374. 2. Silva, M.A.D., Vieira, M.G.A., Maçumoto, A.C.G. & Beppu, M.M. (2011). Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and natural rubber films plasticized with a natural polymeric plasticizer obtained through polyesterification of rice fatty acid. Polym. Test . 30, 478–484. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2011.03.008 . 3. Saeki, Y

Influence of the coating process parameters on the quality of PUR/PVP hydrogel coatings for PVC medical devices

To decrease friction factor and enhance the biocompatibility of medical devices manufactured from poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, the surface modification with wear resistant polyurethane/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PUR/PVP) hydrogel coating can be applied. In the present work substrates were dip-coated with PVP and PUR solutions and thermally cured. The variable process parameters were: solvent system; concentration of polymers (1, 2 or 3% w/v); coating baths temperature (22, 38 and 55°C); drying temperature (32, 50 and 67°C); length of break between process steps (5, 30 and 90 s); and solutions storage time (up to 72 hrs). The quality of coatings was determined by friction coefficients against porcine aorta, weights of the deposited layer and the swelling capacity. The solvent system and polymers concentration were crucial factors. The increased temperature of coating solutions caused increased deposition but decreased durability. The most lubricious samples were dried in 50°C. Coatings from the solutions prepared 24h prior to use had better properties than those from fresh solutions.

). Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and natural rubber films plasticized with a natural polymeric plasticizer obtained through polyesterification of rice fatty acid. Polym. Test , 30, 478–484. DOI: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2011.03.008. 15. Bueno-Ferrer, C., Garrigós, M.C. & Jiménez, A. (2012). Characterization and thermal stability of poly(vinyl chloride) plasticized with epoxidized soybean oil for food packaging. Polymer Degrad. Stab. , 95, 2207–2212. DOI: 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2010.01.027. 16. Karmalm, P., Hjertberg, T., Jansson, A. & Dahl, R. (2009). Thermal stability of poly(vinyl

Utilization of waste chloroorganic compounds

Efficient methods of utilization of waste chloroorganic compounds coming from waste water and the waste streams formed e.g. in the production of vinyl chloride by dichloroethane method and in the production of propylene oxide by chlorohydrin method have been presented. First the separation of chloroorganic wastes by the adsorption methods has been described in the article. Three valuable methods of chlorocompounds utilization have been then discussed. The first one is isomerization of 1,1,2-trichloroethane to 1,1,1-trichloroethane as the valuable product with less toxicity than a substrate. The second method is ammonolysis of waste 1,2-dichloropropane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The third described method is chlorolysis. This method can be used for the utilization of all types of waste chloroorganics.