Forest can adjust climate and provide resources for the development of the society and tourism as well as promote the progress of human civilization, which is of great significance to the survival and development of human beings. With the industrial development and the improvement of people’s living standard, the development strength on forest resources is becoming higher than ever before. As forest resources are important resources which can maintain the ecological balance of the earth, its monitoring and protection is necessary. Hence, remote sensing technology has been developed for monitoring the changes of forest resources, which has the quickness characteristics and real-time spatial information acquisition and analysis capacities. This paper firstly introduced the geographical location, geomorphology, climate status, soil and vegetation types of Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province and the basic theory of remote sensing monitoring such as vegetation spectral reflectance and normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI). Then, the NDVI was used to analyse the vegetation coverage and area ratio of Zhangjiakou City in 2006, 2010 and 2016. It was found that the vegetation coverage during the ten years from 2006 to 2016 showed an overall trend of growth. Conclusions: It is concluded that dynamic monitoring can effectively monitor and protect forest vegetation, which provided ideas for the follow-up forestry planning and ecological tourism development in Zhangjiakou.
Thomas Spanos, Antoaneta Ene, Chrysoula Styliani Patronidou and Christina Xatzixristou
The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal variations of selected heavy metals level in anaerobic fermented and dewatered sewage sludge. Sewage sludge samples were collected in different seasons and years from three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Northern Greece, in Kavala (Kavala and Palio localities) and Drama (Drama locality) Prefectures. An investigation of the potential of sludge utilization in agriculture was performed, based on the comparison of average total heavy metal concentrations and of chromium species (hexavalent, trivalent) concentrations with the allowed values according to the Council Directive 86/278/EEC and Greek national legislation (Joint Cabinet Decision 80568/4225/91) guidelines. In this regard, all the investigated heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg) and chromium species Cr(VI) and Cr(III) have average concentrations (dry matter weight) well below the legislated thresholds for soil application, as following: 2.12 mg kg−1 Cd; 103.7 mg kg−1 Cr; 136.4 mg kg−1 Cu; < 0.2 mg kg−1 Hg; 29.1 mg kg−1 Ni; 62.0 mg kg−1 Pb; 1253.2 mg kg−1 Zn; 1.56 mg kg−1 Cr(VI) and 115.7 mg kg−1 Cr(III). Values of relative standard deviation (RSD) indicate a low or moderate temporal variability for domestic-related metals Zn (10.3-14.7%), Pb (27.9-44.5%) and Cu (33.5-34.2%), and high variability for the metals of mixed origin or predominantly resulted from commercial activities, such as Ni (42.4-50.7%), Cd (44.3-85.5%) and Cr (58.2-102.0%). For some elements the seasonal occurrence pattern is the same for Kavala and Palio sludge, as following: a) Cd and Cr: spring>summer>winter; b) Cu, Ni and Pb: winter>spring>summer. On average, in summer months (dry season) metal concentrations are lower than in spring and winter (wet seasons), with the exception of Zn. For Kavala and Palio the results demonstrate that the increased number of inhabitants (almost doubled) in summer time due to tourism does not influence the metal levels in sludge. Comparing the results obtained for similar spring-summer-winter sequences in 2007 and 2010/11 and for the spring season in 2007, 2008 and 2010, it can be noticed that, in general, the average heavy metal contents show an increasing tendency towards the last year. In all the measurement periods, the Palio sludge had the highest metal contents and Kavala sludge the lowest, leading to the conclusion that the WWTP operating process rather than population has a significant effect upon the heavy metal content of sludge. Cr(VI)/Cr(total) concentration ratios are higher for Kavala sludge in the majority of sampling campaigns, followed by Drama and Palio sludge. The metals which present moderate to strong positive correlation have common origin, which could be a domestic-commercial mixed source.
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Passive House Database
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