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Does Tempo of Resistance Exercise Impact Training Volume?

). The number of repetitions performed at a specific tempo impacts total time under tension in a set (TUT set ). TUT provides accurate information about the duration of resistance effort for a set, and in the whole training session (TUT sum ). With a slow movement tempo, especially 5/0/5/0 or even extremely slow 10/0/10/10, performance of a lower number of repetitions in a set takes longer and has longer TUT than for a faster tempo with a higher number of repetitions. In this situation, determination of exercise volume using the number of performed repetitions is not

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The Influence of Grip Width on Training Volume During the Bench Press with Different Movement Tempos

standardized method of assigning these digits within the scientific literature, in this paper we adopted a unified description of the movement tempo as follows: eccentric / pause / concentric / pause. Change in the movement tempo during a strength exercise impacts on the value of exercise volume, the level of generated force, power output, and hypertrophy ( Hatfield et al., 2006 ; Headley et al., 2011 ; Sakamoto and Sinclair, 2006 ; Wilk et al., 2018a ). The number of repetitions performed at a specific tempo influences the total time under tension in a set (TUT) as

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An Efficient Method of Key-Frame Extraction Based on a Cluster Algorithm


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of different configurations of repetitions within a set of deadlifts on the mechanical variables of concentric force, concentric time under tension, impulse, work, power, and fatigue. Eleven resistance trained men (age: 21.9 ± 1.0 years; deadlift 1 repetition maximum: 183.2 ± 38.3 kg) performed four repetitions of the deadlift exercise with a load equivalent to 90% of 1 repetition maximum under three different set configurations: Traditional (continuous repetitions); Doubles cluster (repetitions 1 and 2, and 3 and 4 performed continuously with a 30 s rest inserted between repetitions 2 and 3); Singles cluster (30 s rest provided between repetitions). The order of the sessions was counterbalanced across the subjects and the mechanical variables were calculated during each repetition from the synchronized signals recorded from force platforms and a motion analysis system. Relative to the Traditional set, the insertion of rest periods in the cluster set configurations resulted in greater time under tension (p < 0.001) and therefore, greater impulse (p < 0.001) during the repetitions. Reductions in power were observed during the cluster sets compared to the Traditional set (p = 0.001). The Doubles cluster set resulted in greater fatigue scores for power compared to the Traditional set (p = 0.04). The influence of cluster sets on mechanical variables appears to be mediated by the mechanical characteristics of the exercise (i.e. stretch-shortening cycle) and the competing physiological mechanisms of fatigue and potentiation.

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Effects of Different Dietary Energy Intake Following Resistance Training on Muscle Mass and Body Fat in Bodybuilders: A Pilot Study

each set by 2-4 kg for upper body exercises and 4-10 kg for lower body exercises. The number of repetitions per set was higher for exercises of the wrist and calves (15-20 RM), and the abdominals (150 to 300 repetitions per session). The greater volume of repetitions for the wrist, calves and abdominals was based on the premise that these muscles are more endurance-oriented and thus need a greater time under tension to maximize muscular development. Participants were instructed to perform each repetition with a velocity of 1 and 2 s in the concentric and eccentric

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Estimating the Energy Costs of Intermittent Exercise

failure. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab , 2011; 36: 115-120 Scott CB. The effect of time-under-tension and weight lifting cadence on aerobic, anaerobic and recovery energy expenditure: 3 submaximal sets. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab , 2012; 37: 252-256 Scott CB. Oxygen costs peak after resistance exercise sets: a rationale for the importance of recovery over exercise. J Exer Physiolonline , 2012; 15: 1-8 Steudel-Numbers KL, Wall-Scheffler CM. Optimal running speed and the evolution of hominin hunting strategies. J Human Evol

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Effects of Cluster Sets and Rest-Redistribution on Mechanical Responses to Back Squats in Trained Men

set of four individual repetitions with 30 s of inter-repetition rest, and a cluster set of four repetitions with 30 s of intra-set rest after every two repetitions. The authors concluded that the additional rest periods during cluster sets had a negative effect on power output and culminated in greater concentric time under tension compared to the traditional set ( Moir et al., 2013 ). A lack of peak force data does not allow for a direct comparison with the present study, but an increase in time under tension (and a hypothesized decrease in movement velocity

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Technical and Training Related Aspects of Resistance Training Using Blood Flow Restriction in Competitive Sport - A Review

., 2012b ), and increased recruitment of fast twitch muscle fibres ( Manimmanakorn et al., 2013b ; Takarada et al., 2000a ). These responses are interdependent and may provide a theoretical explanation for the patterns of neuromuscular adaptations accompanying RT-BFR. Furthermore, the use of BFR during RT leads to decreased exercise volume determined according to the guidelines of Wilk et al. (2018) based on time under tension ( Wernbom et al., 2009 ). It should also be mentioned that RT-BFR (LL) reduces the expression of the myostatin gene (45%) in a way comparable

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