Pei Ling Yeo, Chooi Ling Lim, Soi Moi Chye, Anna Pick Kiong Ling and Rhun Yian Koh
ether [ 20 ]. However, a small amount of residual ether frequently persists in the niosomal suspension [ 27 ].
In the hand-shaking method, also known as thin-film hydration technique, surfactant and cholesterol are dissolved in a volatile organic solvent and transferred to a rotary evaporator. After evaporation, a thin layer of solid mixture is deposited on the wall of the flask. The dried layer is then hydrated with an aqueous phase containing the drug of interest. This process may be carried out at room temperature with gentle agitation [ 15 , 27 ].