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Cholinesterase based amperometric biosensors for assay of anticholinergic compounds

: 450-453. Soreq H, and Seidman S. (2001). Acetylcholinesterase - new role for an old actor. Natur Rev   2 : 294 - 302. Valdes-Ramirez G, Fournier D, Ramirez-Silva MT, and Marty JL. (2008). Sensitive amperometric biosensor for dichlorvos quantification: application to detection of residues on apple skin. Talanta   74 : 741-746. Yoshinobu T, Schoning MJ, Finger F, Moritz W, and Iwasaki H. (2004). Fabrication of thin film LAPS with amorphous silicon. Sensors   4 : 163-169.

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Evaluation of Surfactant Function: In Vitro and In Vivo Techniques in Experimental Respirology

Evaluation of Surfactant Function: In Vitro and In Vivo Techniques in Experimental Respirology

Pulmonary surfactant is present as the thin film of surface active material in the terminal airspaces and conducting airways. The major function of the surfactant film is to reduce the surface tension at the alveolar surface. Deficiency or dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant cause severe respiratory diseases that make the study of pulmonary surfactant not only of physiological but also of clinical importance.

There are three main categories of methods for assessing the properties of pulmonary surfactant: in vitro, in situ and in vivo techniques. Pulsating bubble surfactometer (PBS) and captive bubble surfactometer (CBS) enables to study surfactant properties at spherical air-liquid interphase. Capillary surfactometer in contrast to alveolar models mimics the human terminal airways and evaluates surface properties required for airway patency. Each of above-mentioned methods enables to study exogenous surfactants, as well as surface activity of lavage fluids or tracheal aspirates.

Biophysical characteristics should be reflected by lung compliance and, as a consequence, by improved blood oxygenation. Various animal models have been developed to evaluate the efficacy of surfactant replacement therapy on preterm and term animals. In vivo models can be divided in those, primarily involving surfactant deficiency, such as premature animal model, and those with secondary surfactant dysfunction or inactivation, such as meconium or acid aspiration models.

This review is restricted to the in vivo and in vitro techniques handled by the authors in their research performed within the last years at both domestic and external laboratories.

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Production of oxide coatings by sol-gel method and electrophoresis

.: Effect of titanium on selected oral bacterial species in vitro. Eur. J. Oral. Sci., 103, 382, 1995. 12. Liuxue Z., et al.: Low temperature deposition of TiO2 thin films on polyvinyl alcohol fibers with photocatalytical and antibacterial activities. Appl. Surf. Sci., 254, 1771, 2008. 13. Milella E. et al.: Preparation and characterisation of titania/ hydroxyapatite composite coatings obtained by sol-gel process. Biomaterials, 22, 1425, 2001. 14. Szałakowska E., Masalski J., Głuszek J.: Electrochemical evaluationof

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Niosomes: a review of their structure, properties, methods of preparation, and medical applications

ether [ 20 ]. However, a small amount of residual ether frequently persists in the niosomal suspension [ 27 ]. In the hand-shaking method, also known as thin-film hydration technique, surfactant and cholesterol are dissolved in a volatile organic solvent and transferred to a rotary evaporator. After evaporation, a thin layer of solid mixture is deposited on the wall of the flask. The dried layer is then hydrated with an aqueous phase containing the drug of interest. This process may be carried out at room temperature with gentle agitation [ 15 , 27 ]. Niosomes

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Titanium dioxide in our everyday life; is it safe?

, and effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 2008; 27 : 1825-51. Auffan M, Rose J, Bottero JY, Lowry GV, Jolivet JP, Wiesner MR. Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health and safety perspective. Nat Nanotechnol 2009; 4 : 634-41. Kosmulski M. The pH-dependent surface charging and points of zero charge V. Update. J Colloid Interface Sci 2011; 353 : 1-15. Tang H, Prasad K, Sanjinbs R, Schmid P E, Levy F. Electrical and optical properties of Ti02 anatase thin

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