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Efficacy of Genital Chlamidiae Trachomatis Treatment in Women of Reproductive Age


Cervicitis is inflammation of the cervix, and the causes of such inflammation may include infection from certain sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), injury to the cervix from a foreign body inserted into the vagina (for example, birth control devices such as a cervical cap or diaphragm), or cervical cancer, whose course can be subacute or chronic. Our research aimed to test the efficacy of the proposed treatment protocol for chlamydia trachomatis distal genital infections in reproductive women. This single-centre, randomized, quasi-experimental prospective study was conducted among 40 women with diagnosed Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) cervical infections who were diagnosed and treated at the Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in the Clinical Center Kragujevac in Serbia from December 2014 to January 2015. Patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment method: the tetracycline group (n=20), with doxiciclyn (Dovicin®) given at a dose of 100 mg twice per day for 10 days and 100 mg per day for the next 10 days, and the macrolides group (n=20), with azithromycin (Hemomycin®) at a dose of 1000 mg per day, divided into four doses or a single dose per day. Treatment with doxycycline proved to be statistically more effective compared to treatment with azithromycin. Our results confirm that the outcome of infections caused by C. trachomatis depends solely on the applied therapy and management, but extensive prospective studies in a female cohort that includes more parameters, such as potential age related, dose-dependent and adherence variability, are necessary to determine and confirm the best choice for treatment of CT cervicitis.

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Virulence factors and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of haemophilus influenzae


Haemophilus influenzae is a small gram-negative coccobacillus known as one of the major causes of meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis and epiglottitis, especially in childhood, as well as infections of the lower respiratory tract, eye infections and bacteremia. It has several virulence factors that play a crucial role in patient infl ammatory response. Its capsule, the adhesion proteins, pili, the outer membrane proteins, the IgA1 protease and, last but not least, the lipooligosaccharide, increase the virulence of H. infl uenzae by participating actively in the host invasion the host by the microrganism. Some of these factors are used in vaccine preparations. In the post-vaccine era, an increase has been noticed in many European countries of invasive infections caused by non-encapsulated strains of H. influenzae which have a number of virulence factors, some of which are subject of serious research aiming at creating new vaccines. Numerous mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in H. infl uenzae are known which can compromise the empirical treatment of infections caused by this microorganism. The increasing incidence of resistance to aminopenicillins, induced not only by enzyme mechanisms but also by a change of their target is turning into a signifi cant problem. Resistance to other antibiotics such as macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fl uoroquinolones, commonly used to treat Haemophilus infections has also been described.

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Antimicrobial activity of selected plant species of Genera arbutus l., Bruckenthalia rchb., Calluna salisb. and Erica l. (Ericaceae)


Uvae ursi folium (Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Ericaceae) is the best known and most widely used herbal urinary antiseptic. In traditional medicine, other Ericaceae species are also used for the treatment of urinary tract infections. The present study investigates antimicrobial activity of five species of Ericaceae family native to the Balkan Peninsula: Arbutus unedo, Bruckenthalia spiculifolia, Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea and Erica carnea.

Ethanolic extracts were tested against 10 different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion technique, where standard tetracycline, streptomycin and penicillin discs and discs containing crystal violet (1 mg/ml) and solvent (70.0% v/v ethanol) were used as controls.

The most prominent antibacterial effect was achieved on Staphylococcus aureus with extracts of Calluna vulgaris and Erica carnea. Tested samples showed no activity against the gram-negative strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Inhibitory effects on the growth of gram-positive bacteria were more potent. The exception is Arbutus unedo ethanol extract which exhibited certain activity against a laboratory strain of wild Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extracts against 10 tested strains of bacteria in disc diffusion assay was generally weak, even for sample in which HPLC determination confirmed the presence of arbutin (secondary metabolite responsible for most of the antibacterial activity of Uvaeursi folium).

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Preparation and Characterization of Levofloxacin-Loaded Nanofibers as Potential Wound Dressings

LS - Curcumin-loaded poly (ε-caprolactone) nanofibres: Diabetic wound dressing with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009; 36: 1149-1156. 17. Zahedi P, Karami Z, Rezaeian I, Jafari SH, Mahdaviani P, Abdolghaffari AH, Abdollahi M - Preparation and performance evaluation of tetracycline hydrochloride loaded wound dressing mats based on electrospun nanofibrous poly (lactic acid)/poly (ε-caprolactone) blends. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012; 124: 4174-4183. 18. Wimer SM, Schoonover L, Garrison MW

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The Effect of Tigecycline on the Binding of Fluoroquinolones to Human Serum Albumin

, Homenuik K, Nichol K, et al. The glycylcyclines: a comparative review with the tetracyclines. Drugs 2004; 64: 63-88. 8. Fey G, Reiss M, Kersten H. Interaction of tetracylines with ribosomal subunits from Escherichia coli. A fluorometric investigation. Biochemistry 1973; 12: 1160-1164. 9. Townsend ML, Pound MW, Drew RH. Tigecycline in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal and complicated skin and skin structure infections. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2007; 3: 1059-1070. 10. MacManus-Spencer LA, Tse ML, Hebert PC, Bischel HN, Luthy RG. Binding of

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Influence of Platelet Aggregation Modulators on Cyclic AMP Production in Human Thrombocytes

. Mycologia 2007;99(4):562-8. 14. Mandal A, Delamere NA, Shahidullah M. Ouabaininduced stimulation of sodium-hydrogen exchange in rat optic nerve astrocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2008;295(1):C100–C110. 15. Mørk A, Geisler A. A comparative study on the effects of tetracyclines and lithium on the cyclic AMP second messenger system in rat brain. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1995;19(1):157-69. 16. Peng LQ, Li P, Zhang QL, et al. cAMP induction by ouabain promotes endothelin-1 secretion via MAPK/ERK signaling in beating rabbit atria. Korean J

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In Vivo Collection and SEM Identification of Oral Biofilm Using Indirect Composite Prototype Restorations. Clinical and Laboratory Study

;20(1):37-50. 5. Guggenheim B, Giertsen E, Schüpbach P, et al. Validation of an in vitro biofilm model of supragingival plaque. J Dent Res 2001;80(1):363-70. 6. Shapiro S, Giertsen E, Guggenheim B. An in vitro oral biofilm model for comparing the efficacy of antimicrobial mouthrinses. Caries Res 2002; 36(2):93-100. 7. Ready D, Roberts AP, Pratten J, et al. Composition and antibiotic resistance profile of microcosm dental plaques before and after exposure to tetracycline. J Antimicrob Chemother 2002;49(5):769-75. 8. Zou Y, Lee Y, Huh J, et al. Synergistic

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Consideration of the Therapeutic Potential of Irrigants in Endodontic Therapy

canal irrigation. J Endod 2007; 33:48–51. 99. Beltz RE, Torabinejad M, Pouresmail M. Quantitative analysis of the solubilizing action of MTAD, sodium hypochlorite, and EDTA on bovine pulp and dentin. J Endod 2003; 29: 334–7. 100. Dunavant TR, Regan JD, Glickman GN, Solomon ES, Honeyman AL. Comparative evaluation of endodontic irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. J Endod 2006; 32:527-31. 101. Haznedaroglu F, Ersev H. Tetracycline HCl solution as a root canal irrigant. J Endod 2001; 27:738–40. 102. Newberry BM, Shabahang S, Johnson N

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Profile of patients admitted in a pulmonology ward and developing Clostridium difficile enterocolitis

. Any antibiotic treatment can induce gut microbiota imbalance, but a higher risk is associated with long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The strongest association has been shown for clindamycin, followed by cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, macrolides and trimethoprim/sulphonamides. Tetracycline is not associated with the risk of CDI ( 16 , 17 ). The association between TB treatment and CDI has been less studied, until recently. An outbreak of CDI in patients admitted with TB in Poland identified a hypervirulent

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Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates in the Capital of North Macedonia


Background: Campylobacter infections are typically self-limited, but in cases with severe enteritis, immuno-compromised system and bacteremia, an appropriate antimicrobial treatment is demanding. Our study aim was to determine the isolation rate of Campylobacter among patients with acute enteritis in the capital of North Macedonia and its antimicrobial susceptibility.

Material and methods: A total number of 3820 patients clinically diagnosed as acute enteritis, were included in the study. Stool samples were collected and Campylobacter was isolated and identified by classical microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility of all isolates to Ceftriaxone, Amoxicillin-clavulonic acid, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline and Gentamicin was determined by disc-diffusion technique. Additionally, minimal inhibitory concentrations of all Campylobacter isolates against erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline were determined by Epsilon gradient tests.

Results: Campylobacter species was isolated in 97 patients. Although the mean isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. during the whole study period was 2.53%, a statistically significant increase was detected in 2016 and 2017, in comparison with the data from previous four years of the study. The isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. didn’t reveal statistically significant difference between males and females (p > 0.05). 46.4 % of patients with Campylobacter enteritis were children at the age under 15 years. Forty-three C. jejuni isolates were susceptible to all six antibiotics, but the remaining 44 isolates revealed resistance to at least one antibiotic. C. coli isolates were resistant to 3 antibiotics simultaneously. Two C. coli isolates only, were susceptible to all 6 antibiotics. 40.90% of C. jejuni and 50% of C. coli isolates were resistant to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, simultaneously.

Conclusion: The increase of the isolation rate of Campylobacter from patients with acute enteritis indicates the need for permanent isolation and identification of Campylobacter from every clinically diagnosed patient, as acute enteritis. Erythromicin is the most effective antibiotic for treatment of Campylobacter enteritis in our patients. The high level of Campylobacter resistance to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines requires more rational approach in the treatment of Campylobacter enteritis

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