Aleksandra Dimitrijevic, Zoran Protrka, Nikola Jovic and Petar Arsenijevic
Cervicitis is inflammation of the cervix, and the causes of such inflammation may include infection from certain sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), injury to the cervix from a foreign body inserted into the vagina (for example, birth control devices such as a cervical cap or diaphragm), or cervical cancer, whose course can be subacute or chronic. Our research aimed to test the efficacy of the proposed treatment protocol for chlamydia trachomatis distal genital infections in reproductive women. This single-centre, randomized, quasi-experimental prospective study was conducted among 40 women with diagnosed Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) cervical infections who were diagnosed and treated at the Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in the Clinical Center Kragujevac in Serbia from December 2014 to January 2015. Patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment method: the tetracycline group (n=20), with doxiciclyn (Dovicin®) given at a dose of 100 mg twice per day for 10 days and 100 mg per day for the next 10 days, and the macrolides group (n=20), with azithromycin (Hemomycin®) at a dose of 1000 mg per day, divided into four doses or a single dose per day. Treatment with doxycycline proved to be statistically more effective compared to treatment with azithromycin. Our results confirm that the outcome of infections caused by C. trachomatis depends solely on the applied therapy and management, but extensive prospective studies in a female cohort that includes more parameters, such as potential age related, dose-dependent and adherence variability, are necessary to determine and confirm the best choice for treatment of CT cervicitis.
Haemophilus influenzae is a small gram-negative coccobacillus known as one of the major causes of meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis and epiglottitis, especially in childhood, as well as infections of the lower respiratory tract, eye infections and bacteremia. It has several virulence factors that play a crucial role in patient infl ammatory response. Its capsule, the adhesion proteins, pili, the outer membrane proteins, the IgA1 protease and, last but not least, the lipooligosaccharide, increase the virulence of H. infl uenzae by participating actively in the host invasion the host by the microrganism. Some of these factors are used in vaccine preparations. In the post-vaccine era, an increase has been noticed in many European countries of invasive infections caused by non-encapsulated strains of H. influenzae which have a number of virulence factors, some of which are subject of serious research aiming at creating new vaccines. Numerous mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in H. infl uenzae are known which can compromise the empirical treatment of infections caused by this microorganism. The increasing incidence of resistance to aminopenicillins, induced not only by enzyme mechanisms but also by a change of their target is turning into a signifi cant problem. Resistance to other antibiotics such as macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fl uoroquinolones, commonly used to treat Haemophilus infections has also been described.
Uvae ursi folium (Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Ericaceae) is the best known and most widely used herbal urinary antiseptic. In traditional medicine, other Ericaceae species are also used for the treatment of urinary tract infections. The present study investigates antimicrobial activity of five species of Ericaceae family native to the Balkan Peninsula: Arbutus unedo, Bruckenthalia spiculifolia, Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea and Erica carnea.
Ethanolic extracts were tested against 10 different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion technique, where standard tetracycline, streptomycin and penicillin discs and discs containing crystal violet (1 mg/ml) and solvent (70.0% v/v ethanol) were used as controls.
The most prominent antibacterial effect was achieved on Staphylococcus aureus with extracts of Calluna vulgaris and Erica carnea. Tested samples showed no activity against the gram-negative strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Inhibitory effects on the growth of gram-positive bacteria were more potent. The exception is Arbutus unedo ethanol extract which exhibited certain activity against a laboratory strain of wild Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extracts against 10 tested strains of bacteria in disc diffusion assay was generally weak, even for sample in which HPLC determination confirmed the presence of arbutin (secondary metabolite responsible for most of the antibacterial activity of Uvaeursi folium).
Tijana Boljević, Željko Mijušković, Lidija Kandolf Sekulović and Biserka Vukomanović-Đurđević
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Urška Dermota, Tomaž Jurca, Tatjana Harlander, Marta Košir, Urška Zajc, Majda Golob, Irena Zdovc and Irena Grmek Košnik
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Dajana Nogo-Zivanovic, Ljiljana Bjelovic, Vladimir Ivanovic, Tatjana Kanjevac and Irena Tanaskovic
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