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Aminoglycosides and Kidney Function

Nephrol 1999; 19: 389-94. Alappan R, Parazella MA, Buller GK. Hyperkalemia in Hospitalized Patients Treated With Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole. Ann Intern Med 1996; 124: 316-20. Panchagnula R, Kaur KJ, Singh I. An Ex Vivo characterization of Paclitaxel Loaded Chitosan Films after implantation in Mice. Methods-Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2000; 22: 689-94. Chopra I, Hawkey PM, Hinton M. Tetracyclines molecular and clinical aspects. J. Antimikrob Chematther 1992; 29: 245

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Antibiotic susceptibility and resistance profiles of Romanian Clostridioides difficile isolates

. Dönhöfer A, Franckenberga S, Wicklesa S, Berninghausena O, Beckmann R, Wilson DN. Structural basis for TetM-mediated tetracycline resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct;109(42):16900-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1208037109 19. Mullany P, Wilks M, Lamb I, Clayton C, Wren B, Tabaqchali S. Genetic analysis of a tetracycline resistance element from Clostridium difficile and its conjugal transfer to and from Bacillus subtilis. J Gen Microbiol. 1990 Jul;136(7):1343-9. DOI: 10.1099/00221287-136-7-1343 20. Wang H, Mullany P. The large resolvase

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An experimental in-vitro study to evaluate the anti-helicobacter activity of Glycyrrhetinic acid


Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro efficacy of Glycyrrhetinic acid against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains, as compared with conventional antibacterial agents.

Methods: A total of 41 H. pylori isolates were used, 6 of which were of standard strains (NCTC 1637), 8 of which were drug-sensitive, and 27 were resistant to drugs isolates. Clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance in all strains of H. pylori were determined by the Epsilometer test (E-test) method. MIC study was performed by using microdilution broth method.

Results: Glycyrrhetinic acid was found to be effective against H. pylori NCTC 1637 in doses of 12.0±4.38 µg/mL, while the MIC value of clinical H. pylori isolates susceptible to antimicrobials was 20.8±10.11 µg/ml. It was found that the MIC values for antimicrobial-sensitive clinical H. pylori isolates was higher when compared with H. pylori NCTC 1637 strains. The MIC values of the standard antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant H. pylori strains were higher than H. pylori NCTC 1637 strains and drug-sensitive H. pylori strains. The MIC value was found to be 14.22±7.77 µg/ml for metronidazole, 3.89±1.90 µg/ml for clarithromycin, 2.33±1.0 µg/ml for amoxicillin, 2.44±0.88 µg/ml for levofloxacin and 4.89±2.47 µg/ml for tetracycline, whereas the MIC value of Glycyrrhetinic acid was 26.67±8.0 µg/ml in metronidazole-resistant H. pylori isolates. Besides, MIC values of the antimicrobials and 18ß-Glycyrrhetinic acid among the strains resistant to clarithromycin were as follows: 3.25±2.12 µg/ml for metronidazole, 9.71±4.54 µg/ml for clarithromycin, 2.06±1.32 µg/ml for amoxicillin, 3.88±4.22 µg/ml for levofloaxacin and 3.25±1.04 µg/mL for tetracycline and 22.0±11.11 µg/ml for Glycyrrhetinic acid.

Conclusion: Glycyrrhetinic acid had significant antimicrobial activity against H. pylori strains. Although further in-vivo studies are needed on antimicrobial activity of Glycyrrhetinic acid, increased resistance to drugs currently used in treatment suggests that Glycyrrhetinic acid may be a potential agent for the treatment of H. pylori.

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Bacteriological evaluation of the non-struvite nephrolithiasis and its association with urinary tract infections


Objective: To evaluate the bacteriological features in non-struvite nephrolithiasis and in its associated urinary tract infection, and to establish the relationship between the two pathologies.

Methods: The non-struvite calculi from 132 patients were aseptically extracted by percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). The midstream urine and calculi were bacteriologically and biochemically processed.

Results: Most calculi (78%) were located to renal pelvis, associated with hydronephrosis, the biochemical composition confirming the lack of struvite and revealing the predominance of calcium oxalate. The females presented significantly more colonized calculi (50%) than males (21.9%), with higher bacteriological diversity. There is a significant relation between the presence of colonized calculi and urinary tract infections, 24.2% of calculi and 25.8% of the urine samples presenting positive cultures. In 70.4% of cases, we found the same antibiotic resistance pattern between the pathogens isolated from calculi and urine, thus considering them identical strains. The Enterobacteriaceae represented the most predominant bacteria both from calculi (62.5%) and urine (63.6%), approximatively 30% being resistant to cephalosporins and over 50% resistant to fluoroquinolones, ampicillin and tetracycline. There were 3.8% of cases in which the calculi were colonized but the urine was sterile, the bacteria being sensitive to cephalosporins that are used as prophylaxis.

Conclusions: In all the cases, the same bacterial species was found both in calculi and urine, and 70.4% of them were phenotypically identical. The resistance to the second generation cephalosporins is lower than in the case of other antibiotics, which makes them the most suitable for prophylaxis in PNL.

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