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The Acute Effects of Different Forms of Suspension Push‐Ups on Oxygen Consumption, Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol and Isometric Strength

. Additionally, this information is also important for coaches to understand the bioenergetic demands of training. Furthermore, it has been noted that understanding the training responses for testosterone and cortisol can be important for modulating adaptation to resistance type exercise ( Beaven et al., 2008 ). Several recent studies have been successful in monitoring this through the measurement of salivary testosterone and cortisol ( Beaven et al., 2008 ; Klentrou et al., 2016 ). Currently this information is not available for suspension based resistance exercise in the

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Insights into Supplements with Tribulus Terrestris used by Athletes

, Jackson DA, King DS. Endocrine and lipid responses to chronic androstenediol-herbal supplementation in 30-58 year old men. J Am Coll Nutr, 2001; 20: 520-528 Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Martini ER, Kohut ML, Franke WD, Jackson DA, King DS. Endocrine response to chronic androstenedione intake in 30-to 56-year-old men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2000; 85: 4074-4080 Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Reifenrath TA, Uhl NL, Parsons KA, Sharp RL, King DS. Effects of anabolic precursors on serum testosterone concentrations and adaptations to resistance training in young men. Int J Sport

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The Second to Fourth Digit Ratio in Elite and Non-Elite Greco-Roman Wrestlers

Introduction The lengths of the index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers would represent a lot of information in humans. In fact, the 2D:4D ratio has been studied in different research related to human’s physical or even psychological characteristics. For example, males have a lower 2D:4D ratio than females, and this reflects high utero testosterone exposure in their prenatal period ( Fink et al., 2006 ; Manning and Bundred, 2000 ). Moreover, longitudinal studies have shown that values of 2D:4D are relatively stable with growth ( McIntyre et al., 2005 ; Trivers

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The Importance of Movement Velocity as a Measure to Control Resistance Training Intensity

The Importance of Movement Velocity as a Measure to Control Resistance Training Intensity

Configuration of the exercise stimulus in resitance training has been traditionally associated with a combination of the so-called ‘acute resistance exercise variables’ (exercise type and order, loading, number of repetitions and sets, rests duration and movement velocity). During typical resistance exercise in isoinertial conditions, and assuming every repetition is performed with maximal voluntary effort, velocity unintentionally declines as fatigue develops. However, few studies analyzing the response to different resitance training schemes have described changes in repetition velocity or power. It thus seems necessary to conduct more research using models of fatigue that analyze the reduction in mechanical variables such as force, velocity and power output over repeated dynamic contractions in actual training or competition settings. Thus, the aim of this paper was to discuss the importance of movement velocity concerning control training intensity.

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Acute Endocrine Responses to Different Strength Exercise Order in Men

M, Brixen K, Madsen K. Suppression of endogenous testosterone production attenuates the response to strength training: a randomized, placebo-controlled, and blinded intervention study. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab, 2006; 291: 1325-1332 Leite RD, Prestes J, Rosa C, De Salles BF, Maior A, Miranda H, Simão R. Acute effect of resistance training volume on hormonal responses in trained men. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2011; 51: 322-328 Linnamo V, Pakarinen A, Komi PV, Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen K. Acute hormonal responses to submaximal and

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The Line in the Sand for British Strength Sports. No Second Chances and the Creation of a Drug Free for Life Ethos

REFERENCES BDFPA. (2016). BDFPA History. Retrieved 15.07.2016, from http://bdfpa.co.uk/ Bhasin, S., Storer, T., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Levenger, B., Phillips, J., Bunnell, T., Tricker, R., Shirazi, A. & Casaburi, R. (1996). The Effects of Supraphysiologic Doses of Testosterone on Muscle Size and Strength in Normal Men. The New England Journal of Medicine , 335(1), 1-7. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199607043350101 BPO. (2016). Welcome to the BPO Website . Retrieved 16.07.2016, from http://britishpowerliftingorganisation.co/ Buck, J. (1998

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Ketogenic Diet and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy: a Frenemy Relationship?

, according to different authors ( Hoppeler et al., 2011 ) these factors into positive regulators such as growth factors, AA signalling, hormones, mechanical stimuli, and negative regulators such as Myostatin, GDF11, chronic low-grade inflammation and continuous repeated contractions. Hormones It is well known that some hormones exert anabolic effects on skeletal muscle; among others, the most powerful are testosterone, growth hormone (and its downstream: IGF-1) and insulin. Data available on mice showed that KD per se did not influence testosterone levels, while

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Urinary Steroid Profile in Ironman Triathletes

long-duration sport events has been analysed previously. Urhausen and Kindermann (1987) conducted the first study related to the recovery period after a triathlon. Testosterone remained unchanged after the race, but decreased to its lowest value two days after the event. Cortisol increased up to 4 times right after the race and returned to baseline within four days. Lutoslawska et al. (1991) analysed the steroid profile of rowers after 19 and 42 km of kayak races. They observed that serum cortisol was greater when the race was longer, and that the testosterone

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The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents

response to an ultra-endurance exercise bout in experienced athletes. J Appl Physiol , 2013; 114(1): 66-72 Malina RM, Rogol AD. Sport training and the growth and pubertal maturation of young athletes. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev , 2011; 9(1): 441–55 Moreira A, Mortatti A, Aoki M, Arruda A, Freitas C, Carling C. Role of free testosterone in interpreting physical performance in elite young brazilian soccer players. Pediatr Exerc Sci , 2013; 25(2): 186–97 Nemet D, Portal S, Zadik Z, Pilz-Burstein R, Adler-Portal D, Meckel Y, Eliakim A. Training increases

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The Hermeneutics of Participation of Transgender Athletes in Sports - Intensifying Third Force

The Hermeneutics of Participation of Transgender Athletes in Sports - Intensifying Third Force

The present paper is an attempt to move structurally towards the understanding of the basic constitution of the core concept of this paper. It's basically looking at the empirical and inner ideological conception of issue of participation of transgender athletes in sports. The creed of the Olympics states: "The important thing in the game is not winning but taking part. The essential this is not conquering, but fighting well". As noble a goal as this is, it has little to do with the reality of the modern sports world. Athletes are rewarded for winning at virtually every level of competition. Second place is viewed as the "first loser". Modern sports' and the media's misplaced fixation on fame, fortune and winning at all costs have unintentionally created a growing market for unhealthy practices. This review manifests an attempt towards the conceptual study of the participation of transgender athletes in competitive sports, which is one of the latest equality challenges for sport-governing organizations worldwide. The paper investigates the motif of interrelated dynamics between gender terminology and legal and medical issues related to transgender athlete participation in sport. On 28 October 2003, an ad-hoc committee convened by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission met in Stockholm to discuss, then issue recommendations on, the topic of the participation of individuals who have undergone sex reassignment (male to female and vice versa) in sport. This has resulted in a heated debate that there is a competitive advantage for a male who has undergone sex reassignment surgery because of his physical training and development. Men have significantly higher levels of testosterone, a greater muscle-to-fat ratio, and greater heart and lung capacity than women. The other side of the debate argues that a physiological advantage does not necessarily exist. Transgenders must continually take massive doses of oestrogen, which decreases their strength, and their bodies no longer produce testosterone. The issue under consideration has multi-faceted dimensions of interpretations that center on a desire to ‘deconstruct’ the present structuration of acceptance of sex and gender terminology. The resultant aim is to create a worldview of equality, respect for the ‘other’, and competitive fairness. The latent attempt of the paper is to deconstruct the binary of inequality in the field of sports with a view to give vibrational impetus for attaining the ideals of equality in sports.

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