Tae Hee Kim, Mi Ran Kim, Yongsik Jung and Young-Sil An
relationship between sex hormones levels and 18 F-FDG uptake by ovaries in premenopausal woman.
Patients and methods
This study included 197 premenopausal women (median age, 44 years) who were diagnosed with breast cancer between March 2015 and July 2017 and underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT to determine pretreatment status, as well as sex-hormone assays (including estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]). Hormone assays were performed on the same day as PET. The date of the last normal menstrual
immediately admitted to the hospital ward with prompt initiation of IV corticosteroids ( 20 ). Endocrinology consultation is also warranted.
Other endocrinopathies include type I diabetes mellitus, which can occur with both anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 blockade at a rate of approximately <1% ( 44 ). Incidence is doubled with the use of combined ipilimumab and nivolumab ( 9 ). Insulin treatment is recommended. Finally, cases of low testosterone have been reported in patients treated with ipilimumab ( 49 ).
Pneumonitis is an uncommon side
Gonadal function in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease in childhood
Background. The long-term survival of patients treated for Hodgkin's disease (HD) in childhood is high and the chief concern is now being directed toward the late effects of the treatment, including the endocrine dysfunction.
Patients and methods. Testicular and ovarian functions were assessed in 64 long term survivors (24 females, 40 males) treated for HD in childhood in Slovenia between 1972 and 1994. At diagnosis they were 3-16 years old and had gonadal evaluation 4-27 years later at the age of 13-34. Fifty-four (84%) patients received chemotherapy (ChT), 49 in combination with radiation therapy (RT), 10 received RT alone. Gonadal function was assessed by the clinical examination and measurement of serum concentrations of estradiol and testosterone. Serum levels of LH and FSH were determined in the basal state and after the stimulation.
Results. Primary hypogonadism (PH) was found in 30 (47%) patients. Twenty-four of 40 (60%) males had PH with evidence of damage of germinal epithelium, 4 of them had evidence of damage of Leydig cells (LC) and 10 had evidence of dysfunction of LC as well. PH was found in 6 of 24 (25%) females.
Conclusions. After therapy for HD PH was more frequent in males than in females. Not only RT but also alkylating agents and procarbazine alone caused damage of LC. Age of patient at the time of treatment was not an important risk factor for gonadal toxicity. Pelvic RT in combination with ChT is the most important risk factor of the development PH both, in males and females.
Jasenka Gugic, Lorna Zadravec Zaletel and Irena Oblak
reporting on the possible association of metabolic syndrome with low serum testosterone levels in patients who received chemotherapy. 49 Nuver et al . proposed that low serum testosterone level and metabolic syndrome could be associated through increased body mass index. 48
It’s well known that hypogonadism increases risk for CVD and correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis, even in a healthy male population. In addition, it was shown that gonadal dysfunction is associated with obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, as well as with higher levels of
Nina Trost, Peter Juvan, Gregor Sersa and Natasa Debeljak
, Castanas E, Kampa M. Testosterone membrane-initiated action in breast cancer cells: Interaction with the androgen signaling pathway and EPOR. Molec Oncol 2010; 4 : 135-49.
Notas G, Kampa M, Pelekanou V, Castanas E. Interplay of estrogen receptors and GPR30 for the regulation of early membrane initiated transcriptional effects: A pharmacological approach. Steroids 2011.
improved nephrotoxicity 44 and ototoxicity 45 profiles, but are also less efficient than cisplatin. This challenge could be addressed by harnessing a nanotechnology-based strategy. An example of the cisplatin toxicity prevention on the reproductive system is the use of selenium nanoparticles (Nano-Se). Nano-Se particles, due to their strong antioxidant potential are suitable to prevent cisplatin induced gonadotoxicity. Co-administration with cisplatin significantly improves the sperm quality, serum testosterone and spermatogenesis in male rats. 46 Lipoplatin is