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Evaluation of direct metagenomics and target enriched approaches for high-throughput sequencing of field rabies viruses

ultracentrifugation) significantly increases the number of viral reads. An appropriate nucleic acid extraction method and control of RNA/DNA parameters, both of concentration (fluorimeter) and integrity (capillary electrophoresis) during each stage of sample processing are imperative for effective library preparation and sequencing. If deep characterisation of viruses is intended, e.g . for spatial and temporal phylogeography of viral populations during outbreaks, target enrichment followed by deep sequencing is also recommended as it generates much greater coverage of obtained

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The Impact of Mastitis on Reproductive Parameters of Dairy Cows

cows (In Slovak). Potravinárstvo (Food Industry), 7, 207—212. DOI: 10.5219/304. 7. Jackson, P., Cockeroft, P., 2002: Clinical Examination of Farm Animals . Oxford, UK, Blackwell Science Ltd, Wiley-Blackwell, 54—166. 8. Kivaria, F. M., Noordhuizen, J. P., 2007: A retrospective study of the aetiology and temporal distribution of bovine clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania. Vet. J. , 173, 617—622. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.01.008. 9. Kvapilík, J., Pytloun, J. 2002: The economic importance of

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Appraisal of the Antioxidative Potential of Aloe Barbadensis M. on Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress

: Glutathione reductase. Method Enzymol. , 113, 485—490. 6. Carney, J. M., Starke-Reed, P. E., Oliver, C. N., Landum, R. W., Cheng, M. S., Wu, J. F., Floyd, R. A., 1991: Reversal of age-related increase in brain protein oxidation, decrease in enzyme activity, and loss in temporal and spatial memory by chronic administration of the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 88, 9, 3633—3636. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.88.9.3633. 7. Chandan, B. K., Saxena, A. K., Shukla, S., Sharma, N., Gupta, D. K., Suri, K

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Progress in clinical research complicated infection with diabetes mellitus

.A., Skin and soft tissue infections in hospitalized patients with diabetes: culture isolates and risk factors associated with mortality, length of stay and cost, Diabetologia, 2010, 53(5), 914-923. Lipsky B.A. Tabak Y.P. Johannes R.S. Vo L. Hyde L. Weigelt J.A. Skin and soft tissue infections in hospitalized patients with diabetes: culture isolates and risk factors associated with mortality length of stay and cost, Diabetologia 2010 53 5 914 – 923 [13] Meltzer P.E., Kelemen G., Pyocyaneous osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, mandible

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Seroprevalence, clinical, and pathological characteristics of canine leishmaniasis in a central region of Colombia

impact on public health Trends Parasitol 2013 29 339 345 10.1016/ 36 Ramírez J.D., Hernández C., León C.M., Ayala M.S., Flórez C., González C.: Taxonomy, diversity, temporal and geographical distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia: a retrospective study. Sci Rep 2016, 6, 28266, doi: 10.1038/srep28266. Ramírez J.D. Hernández C. León C.M. Ayala M.S. Flórez C. González C. Taxonomy, diversity, temporal and geographical distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia: a retrospective study Sci Rep

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Effects of ketosis in dairy cows on blood biochemical parameters, milk yield and composition, and digestive capacity

, regardless of the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ( 30 ). In this study, liver oxidative damage caused by high NEFA and low Glu suggested elevated plasma AST, GGT, and TBIL ( 3 ). In addition, a high plasma concentration of NEFA is temporally correlated with an impaired peripheral blood neutrophil function, which affects the response to immune challenges ( 21 ). In this study, high milk fat and citrate and low milk protein and lactose were detected in ketotic dairy cows. Under NEB (meaning blood glucose deficiency), high blood NEFA content mobilised from

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Changes in Synovial Fluid Inflammatory Mediators and Cartilage Biomarkers After Experimental Acute Equine Synovitis


The purpose of the study was to define transient changes in the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers and cartilage biomarkers in the synovial fluid of joints following experimentally induced acute equine synovitis. Acute synovitis was induced in eight skeletally mature mares by a sterile intra-articular injection of 1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.5 ng of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The solution was injected into the right middle carpal joint. One mL of sterile PBS was injected into the left control joint. Synovial fluid was obtained at the baseline level and at 8, 24, and 168 h after injection. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cartilage turnover biomarkers-collagenase-cleavage neoepitope of type II collagen (C2C) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide type II collagen (CTX-II) were detected with proper assays. Single injections of LPS raised the number of synovial white blood cells and concentrations of total protein, PGE2, IL-1β, TNF-α, C2C, and CTX-II. PGE2 and IL-1β rose sharply at 8 h, while TNF-α increased steadily through 8 h and 24 h, at that point; these three factors returned to the baseline level by 168 h. The time course of C2C and CTX-II concentrations peaked sharply at 24 h, and continued to be significantly elevated over the baseline level even at 168 h. Injections of LPS into the joints led to a temporal inflammatory response, which in turn increased local release of inflammatory biomarkers and significantly altered the concentrations of cartilage markers in the synovial fluid.

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Breeding profiles at the periparturient stage in captive red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) mating naturally or subjected to artificial insemination in Japan

Reprod Sci 1998, 53, 35–42. 5. Fougner J.A.: Artificial insemination in fox breeding. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 1989, 39, 317–323. 6. Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science: Guidelines for animal experimentation. Exp Anim 1987, 36, 285–288. 7. Mondain-Monval M., Dutourne B., Bonnin-Laffargue M., Canivenc R., Scholler R.: Ovarian activity during the anoestrus and the reproductive season of the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes L .). J Steroid Biochem 1977, 8, 761–769. 8. Møller O.M., Mondain-Monval M., Smith A., Metzger E., Scholler R.: Temporal

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Metaldehyde poisoning of companion animals: a three-year retrospective study

-259. 4. Bille L., Toson M., Mulatti P., Dalla Pozza M., Capolongo F., Casarotto C., Ferrè N., Angeletti R., Gallocchio F., Binato G.: Epidemiology of animal poisoning: an overview on the features and spatio-temporal distribution of the phenomenon in the northeastern Italian regions. Forensic Sci Int 2016, 266, 440-448. 5. Caloni F., Cortinovis C., Rivolta M., Davanzo F.: Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides. Sci Total Environ 2016, 539, 331-336. 6. Campbell A.: Metaldehyde poisoning of dogs. Vet Rec 2008, 163, 343

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Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and absolute CD4 cell count in long term survivors HIV-1 infected patients from Giurgiu, Romania

R, Egger M. Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and progression to AIDS. Lancet 1999; (353):589. 7. Lyles C, Dorrucci M, Vlahov D, Pezzotti P, Angarano G, Sinicco A et al. Longitudinal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 load in the Italian Seroconversion Study: correlates and temporal trends of virus load. J Infect Dis 1999; (180): 1018-24. 8. Sterling T, Lyles C, Vlahov D, Astemborski J, Margolick J, Quinn T.Sex differences in longitudinal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels among seroconverters. J Infect Dis 1999; (180

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