Anna Orłowska, Ewelina Iwan, Marcin Smreczak and Jerzy Rola
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, regardless of the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ( 30 ). In this study, liver oxidative damage caused by high NEFA and low Glu suggested elevated plasma AST, GGT, and TBIL ( 3 ). In addition, a high plasma concentration of NEFA is temporally correlated with an impaired peripheral blood neutrophil function, which affects the response to immune challenges ( 21 ).
In this study, high milk fat and citrate and low milk protein and lactose were detected in ketotic dairy cows. Under NEB (meaning blood glucose deficiency), high blood NEFA content mobilised from
Guanying Wang, Xinran Li, Renli Jiang, Yue Li, Xiaojing Fan, Yu Zheng and Li Gao
The purpose of the study was to define transient changes in the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers and cartilage biomarkers in the synovial fluid of joints following experimentally induced acute equine synovitis. Acute synovitis was induced in eight skeletally mature mares by a sterile intra-articular injection of 1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.5 ng of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The solution was injected into the right middle carpal joint. One mL of sterile PBS was injected into the left control joint. Synovial fluid was obtained at the baseline level and at 8, 24, and 168 h after injection. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cartilage turnover biomarkers-collagenase-cleavage neoepitope of type II collagen (C2C) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide type II collagen (CTX-II) were detected with proper assays. Single injections of LPS raised the number of synovial white blood cells and concentrations of total protein, PGE2, IL-1β, TNF-α, C2C, and CTX-II. PGE2 and IL-1β rose sharply at 8 h, while TNF-α increased steadily through 8 h and 24 h, at that point; these three factors returned to the baseline level by 168 h. The time course of C2C and CTX-II concentrations peaked sharply at 24 h, and continued to be significantly elevated over the baseline level even at 168 h. Injections of LPS into the joints led to a temporal inflammatory response, which in turn increased local release of inflammatory biomarkers and significantly altered the concentrations of cartilage markers in the synovial fluid.
Minoru Yatu, Mitsuhiro Sato, Jin Kobayashi, Toshihiro Ichijyo, Hiroshi Satoh, Toshinori Oikawa and Shigeru Sato
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