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. Pharmacol. 1998; 353: 191-206. 7. Glien M, Brandt C, Potschka H, Loscher W. Effects of the novel antiepileptic drug levetiracetam on spontaneous recurrent seizurs in the rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2002; 43: 350-7. 8. Cavalheiro EA. The pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Ital J Neuro Sci. 1995; 16: 33-7. 9. Sarkisian MR. Overview of the current animal models for human seizure and epileptic disorders. Epilepsy Behav. 2001; 2:201-16. 10. Leite JP, Garcia-Cairasco N, Cavalheiro EA. New insight from the use of pilocarpine and kainate model

References 1. Tschoi M, Hoy EA, Granick MS. Skin flaps. Clin Plast Surg. 2005; 32:261-73. 2. Brodland DG. Paramedian forehead flap reconstruction for nasal defects. Dermatol Surg. 2005; 31:1046-52. 3. Chen EH, Johnson TM, Ratner D. Introduction to flap movement: reconstruction of five similar nasal defects using different flaps. Dermatol Surg. 2005; 31:982-5. 4. Tan O, Atik B, Ergen D. Temporal flap variations for craniofacial reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007; 119:152e-163e. 5. Fan J. A new technique of scarless expanded forehead flap for reconstructive

(SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) and was analyzed using the same software. Results In the present study, patients were 18 to 65 years old with mean age of 43.1 (SD 13.88) years. Most patients with MS were 42 to 62 years old group (47%), while 30% cases were found those 18 to 38 years old, and rest (23%) were >62 years. There were 43 male and 57 female patients. Considering MS lesion involvement of the brain parenchyma, MS lesions mainly involved deep white matter of the CNS. Deep white matter lesions were present in 95% of the cases. MS plaques were present in temporal


This article reviews symptomatic intraventricular xanthogranulomas, based on a case presentation. Bilateral xanthogranulomas of the choroid plexus were removed surgically from the lateral ventricles of a 12-year-old boy. At 9 years of age, he had evidence of increased intracranial pressure and was hospitalized. Dense enhancing masses were detected in computerized tomogram (CT) brain scan. The lesions were in the region of trigones with extension into the temporal horns and into the right occipital horn. The masses were brightly yellow and greasy. They measured 8.5 x 5.5 x 3.5 cm and 10 x 6.5 x 4.5 cm, respectively, and proved to be xanthogranulomas. Review of 35 reported symptomatic intraventricular xanthogranulomas revealed 11 lesions in the lateral ventricles in which six of them were bilateral. Twenty-two lesions were in the third ventricle, and two lesions were in the fourth ventricle. The lesion shows no significant sexual predilection. The patients’ average age is 37.6 years for males, 32.4 years for females, and 34.3 years for both sexes. The size of symptomatic lesions ranged from 1 to 3 cm in diameter but a few were large, up to 8 to 10 cm. The origin of foamy (xanthoma) cells in the xanthogranulomas arising in the choroid plexus is thought to be multicentric including the choroidal epithelium and stromal arachnoidal cells that have undergone xanthomatous changes. Increased intracranial pressure is the significant clinical feature of the intraventricular xanthogranulomas as in other mass lesions within the skull. Surgical extirpation is the treatment of choice if the lesion is accessible and the patient’s general condition is suitable.

dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012; 43:174-6. 5. Amengual B, Bourhy H, L pez-Roig M, Serra-Cobo J. Temporal dynamics of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 and survival of Myotis myotis bats in natural colonies. PLoS One. 2007; 27:e566. 6. Wanderler A, Wachendorfer G, Forset U, Krekel H, Muller J, Stock F. Rabies in wild carnivors in Central Europe: virological and serological examinations. Zentrbl. Veterinaermed Reihe B. 1974; 21:757-65. 7. Rosatte RC, Gunson JR. Presence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in striped skunks from area

focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury reveals a temporal regulation of novel pathophysiological molecular markers. J Proteome Res. 2011; 10: 5199-213. 4. Wang Y, Liao X, Zhao X, Wang DZ, Wang C, Nguyen-Huynh MN, et al. Using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute ischemic stroke in China: analysis of the results from the Chinese National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Stroke. 2011; 42: 1658-64. 5. Tsubota H, Marui A, Esaki J, Bir SC, Ikeda T, Sakata R. Remote postconditioning may attenuate ischaemia- reperfusion injury in the murine hindlimb through

undergoing comprehensive stroke imaging by multidetector-row CT: comparison of 320-detector row and 64-detector row CT scanners. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010; 31:1003-9. 19. Siebert E, Bohner G, Dewey M, Hoffmann KT, Mews J, Engelken F, et al. Letter to the editor concerning “320-slice CT neuroimaging: initial clinical experience and image quality evaluation” (Siebert E, et al. Br J Radiol. 2009;82:561-70). Br J Radiol. 2009; 82:615. 20. Bauknecht HC, Siebert E, Dannenberg A. Image quality and radiation exposure in 320-row temporal bone computed tomography. Dentomaxillofac

, McIntosh K, Zvonic S, Garret S, Floyd ZE, Kloster A, et al. Immunophenotype of human adiposederived cells: temporal changes in stromal-associated and stem cell-associated markers. Stem Cells. 2006; 24:376-85.

values from venous samples in patients with acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using artificial neural network. J Med Syst. 2011; 35:483-8. 16. Jang JSR. Self-learning fuzzy controllers based on temporal backpropagation. IEEE Trans Neural Netw. 1992; 3:714-23. 17. Tu JV. Advantages and disadvantages of using artificial neural networks versus logistic regression for predicting medical outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996; 49:1225-31. 18. Rodriguez-Panadero F, Janssen JP, Astoul P. Thoracoscopy: general overview and place in the diagnosis and management

Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1974; 5:569-73. 31. Ramalingan S. On the restriction of Armigeres durhami Edwards and the description of Armigeres kesseli n. sp. (Diptera: Culicidae). Trop Biomed. 1987; 4:55-6. 32. Richard HF, David RC. Mosquitoes of Medical Importance. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1959. 33. Rozendaal JA. Vector control: method for use by individuals and communities. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 1997. p. 52-177. 34. Mahanta B, Handique R, Dutta P, Narain K, Mahanta J. Temporal variations in