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Distinguishing magnetic resonance imaging features between idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis and secondary hypertrophic pachymeningitis

posterior fossa dural thickening ( Table 3 ). Figure 3 IgG4-related pachymeningitis. Coronal T2-weighted image ( A ) shows dark intensity dural thickening involving right tentorium cerebelli (arrow). Axial ( B ) and sagittal ( C ) gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images demonstrate mildly heterogeneous enhancement of the thickened dura involving right medial temporal region, right Meckel’s cave, and along anterior part of right tentorium cerebelli (arrow). Table 3 Configurations and locations of dural thickening in idiopathic HP and secondary HP groups

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Association of SLC1A2 and SLC17A7 polymorphisms with major depressive disorder in a Thai population

transporter 1 (VGLUT1) ( SLC17A7 ) was found in the entorhinal cortex of patients with either MDD or bipolar disorder [ 21 ], and in middle temporal gyrus in suicide victims of severe psychiatric disorders including MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia [ 21 ]. By contrast, increased SLC17A7 expression was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia [ 22 ]. Therefore, genes encoding glutamate transporters may vary in psychiatric diseases including MDD and warrant genetic study. To our knowledge, there are only a few studies reporting

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Incretin levels in patients with hypothyroidism and the evaluation of incretin levels alterations with treatment

peaked with the glucose load varies between 30 min and 90 min. While the highest GIP value was detected at 60 min in the hypothyroidism group in our study, the fact that the highest peak GIP value was detected at 90 min in the control group indicates that hypothyroidism may have an effect on the temporal variation of GIP response to a glucose load. When the patients with hypothyroidism were evaluated in terms of GIP response after ensuring the euthyroid state with treatment in our study, it was observed that the GIP levels induced by baseline and glucose remained

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Effects of N(2-propylpentanoyl)urea on hippocampal amino acid neurotransmitters in spontaneous recurrent seizure rats

, Wulfert E. Evidence for a unique profile of levetiracetam in rodent models of seizures and epilepsy. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1998; 353: 191-206. 7. Glien M, Brandt C, Potschka H, Loscher W. Effects of the novel antiepileptic drug levetiracetam on spontaneous recurrent seizurs in the rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2002; 43: 350-7. 8. Cavalheiro EA. The pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Ital J Neuro Sci. 1995; 16: 33-7. 9. Sarkisian MR. Overview of the current animal models for human seizure and

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Axial expanded forehead flaps for the repair of extensive facial defects: a report of 13 cases

References 1. Tschoi M, Hoy EA, Granick MS. Skin flaps. Clin Plast Surg. 2005; 32:261-73. 2. Brodland DG. Paramedian forehead flap reconstruction for nasal defects. Dermatol Surg. 2005; 31:1046-52. 3. Chen EH, Johnson TM, Ratner D. Introduction to flap movement: reconstruction of five similar nasal defects using different flaps. Dermatol Surg. 2005; 31:982-5. 4. Tan O, Atik B, Ergen D. Temporal flap variations for craniofacial reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007; 119:152e-163e

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Multiple sclerosis lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, their characterization and pathological correlation with musculoskeletal disability in Pakistanis

the cases. MS plaques were present in temporal lobe, but in small number of cases ( Table 1 ). The lesions were more common supratentorially, but can be present in infratentorial locations, including the posterior fossa and spinal cord as found in 16% of our cases ( Table 1 ). Table 1 Frequency of lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis Symptoms No. of patients Deep white matter disease 95 Temporal lobe lesions 9 Juxtacortical lesions 62 Periventricular lesions 96 Infratentorial lesions 16

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Symptomatic intraventricular xanthogranulomas


This article reviews symptomatic intraventricular xanthogranulomas, based on a case presentation. Bilateral xanthogranulomas of the choroid plexus were removed surgically from the lateral ventricles of a 12-year-old boy. At 9 years of age, he had evidence of increased intracranial pressure and was hospitalized. Dense enhancing masses were detected in computerized tomogram (CT) brain scan. The lesions were in the region of trigones with extension into the temporal horns and into the right occipital horn. The masses were brightly yellow and greasy. They measured 8.5 x 5.5 x 3.5 cm and 10 x 6.5 x 4.5 cm, respectively, and proved to be xanthogranulomas. Review of 35 reported symptomatic intraventricular xanthogranulomas revealed 11 lesions in the lateral ventricles in which six of them were bilateral. Twenty-two lesions were in the third ventricle, and two lesions were in the fourth ventricle. The lesion shows no significant sexual predilection. The patients’ average age is 37.6 years for males, 32.4 years for females, and 34.3 years for both sexes. The size of symptomatic lesions ranged from 1 to 3 cm in diameter but a few were large, up to 8 to 10 cm. The origin of foamy (xanthoma) cells in the xanthogranulomas arising in the choroid plexus is thought to be multicentric including the choroidal epithelium and stromal arachnoidal cells that have undergone xanthomatous changes. Increased intracranial pressure is the significant clinical feature of the intraventricular xanthogranulomas as in other mass lesions within the skull. Surgical extirpation is the treatment of choice if the lesion is accessible and the patient’s general condition is suitable.

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Ethics and the “Milwaukee protocol” for human rabies treatment

. Detection of antibodies against the rabies virus in Korean raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012; 43:174-6. 5. Amengual B, Bourhy H, L pez-Roig M, Serra-Cobo J. Temporal dynamics of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 and survival of Myotis myotis bats in natural colonies. PLoS One. 2007; 27:e566. 6. Wanderler A, Wachendorfer G, Forset U, Krekel H, Muller J, Stock F. Rabies in wild carnivors in Central Europe: virological and serological examinations. Zentrbl. Veterinaermed Reihe B. 1974; 21

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Molecular mechanisms for NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester action against cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury-induced blood–brain barrier dysfunction

. Quantitative neuroproteomics of an in vivo rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury reveals a temporal regulation of novel pathophysiological molecular markers. J Proteome Res. 2011; 10: 5199-213. 4. Wang Y, Liao X, Zhao X, Wang DZ, Wang C, Nguyen-Huynh MN, et al. Using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute ischemic stroke in China: analysis of the results from the Chinese National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Stroke. 2011; 42: 1658-64. 5. Tsubota H, Marui A, Esaki J, Bir SC, Ikeda T, Sakata R. Remote

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Brief communication (Original). Multimodal imaging fiducial markers for kinematic measurement of joint models

:114-30. 7. Gendrin C, Markelj P, Pawiro SA, Spoerk J, Bloch C, Weber C, et al. Validation for 2D/3D registration I: The comparison of intensity- and gradient-based merit functions using a new gold standard data set. Med Phys. 2011; 38:1491-502. 8. Grayeli AB, Esquia-Medina G, Nguyen Y, Mazalaigue S, Vellin J-F, Lombard B, et al. Use of anatomical or invasive markers in association with skin surface registration in image-guided surgery of the temporal bone. Acta Oto-Laryngologica. 2009; 129:405-10. 9. Hendee WR, and Morgan CJ. Magnetic

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