The paper presents data from interviews conducted in 2006–2007 with four representatives of the Prague street art and graffiti scene who worked in the Czech capital city at the beginning of the 2000s. Part of the article deals with creative activities in the Prague subway where most of the interviewed authors created their works. The author thus offers the perspective of the authors of the Prague street art and graffiti scenes and presents their view of the (il)legal works of art from around ten years ago in the context of the current discourse in social sciences. Over the last twenty years, this discourse has evolved to such an extent that it now enables to see the phenomenon of urban public works of art as a phenomenon full of paradoxes. Graffiti and street art therefore cannot be interpreted only from the point of view of legality or the art of resistance. Their definition must remain sufficiently open, since certain ambivalence, contradiction and ghostliness are characteristic of it equally as of life in a modern global city that is inherently tied to it.
Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen, Eleonora A. Lundell and Marja-Liisa Honkasalo
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For the Bulgarian Muslims in Spain wedding videos are a popular device for socializing, overcoming nostalgia and keeping pace with the news and events that take place back home in Bulgaria. The mediatization of the ritual allows an extension of the ritual across time and space. Watching the videos is a re-enactment of the celebration and has become part of the ritual itself. Subsequently, this extension of the ritual through a mediated device has led to its subtle transformations. At the same time, wedding videos and the particular mode of use produce a social effect beyond the structure of the ritual. They contribute to the extending and re-creating of a migrant community that spreads over space transnationally and temporally between the past of home and the present of life in migrancy. Drawing on ethnographic material and using the analytical tools of actor-network theory, the main aim of this paper is to trace the uses and effects of wedding videos for transforming the wedding ritual through postponing and re-enacting it on one hand, and for sustaining the phantasm of an imagined virtual community on the other. The broader problem that this paper seeks to address is the specific role that material devices play for producing social effects for migrant communities.
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2 This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-2515.
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attuned to the ‘pangs’ that ‘sneak in through the back door’, we get a better sense of diasporic life, while simultaneously disrupting the assimilationist imperative of normative discourses of Australian multiculturalism. Shapiro (2000) summarises as follows:
Creating unity out of constitutive division, the state attempts to write itself in a way that ends the split. Indeed, once we locate the state in a theatrical frame, imaginatively performing its distinctiveness rather than simply existing passively within a naturalized, geopolitical space, the split temporal
not something that we are but something that we do. It offers a more critical approach to diaspora that eschews it as a given or taken-for-granted descriptive category that also assumes connectedness or affinities based solely on ethnicity or race (Brubaker 2005; Alexander 2017 ). Instead, the focus on diasporic resources allows for diaspora to be treated as a set of practices that form a complex, strategic and deliberate “stance” ( Alexander 2017 ). Diasporic resources suggest an active process of identity-making and, as such, are always fluid, temporal, partial
radical students, strident feminists, foreigners, welfare scroungers, the unemployed and so on. But these resentments have little to do with traditional forms of class protest in any direct fashion, and they are generalised as an aspect of modern consumerism. Obviously, the business cycle may contribute to the temporal flow of resentment, but it is not central to the issue that modern consumption promotes the display of status distinction not based on merit or virtue, but largely on luck. The connection between citizenship and virtue is broken by the vagaries of the