, uncertainty regarding the role of exogenous versus endogenous factors remain. To enable a thorough review of the economy of policy translation, I suggest we examine the nexus between multiple actors, simultaneously present and proximate, across socio-political and temporal divisions. Using the concepts of F. de Boeck’s ‘knot’ (2011) , S. Nuttall’s ‘entanglement’ (2009) or C. McFarlane’s ‘assemblage’ (2011a) , this paper thinks through the messy intersections between supposed opposites – innovation and inertia, amalgamation and apartness, connection and disconnection and
Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
) The Meanings of Graffiti and Municipal Administration The Australien and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 35(2), 165–186. 10.1375/acri.35.2.165 Halsey M. Young A. 2002 The Meanings of Graffiti and Municipal Administration The Australien and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 35 2 165 186
Haworth, B., Bruce, E. & Iveson, K. (2013) Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Graffiti Occurrence in an Inner-City Urban Environment Applied Geography, 38, 53–63. Haworth B. Bruce E. Iveson K. 2013 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Graffiti Occurrence
Linda Dörrzapf, Anna Kovács-Győri, Bernd Resch and Peter Zeile
data also has to be mentioned. The logins of the smartphones on the respective transmitter masts are evaluated via the Cell-ID. An example of this is the M-Atlas, which evaluates this for mobile behaviour through temporal changes in logins ( Batty et al. 2012 ). Due to the non-standardised density of mobile phone masts and their decrease in rural areas and the resulting inaccurate location, this approach is not adequate to assess walkability. These data can be helpful for statements about behaviour relating to global or urban mobility. However, these data sets are
transitions, and also the complex mix of continuities and ruptures in these processes (e.g., Bratton & Van de Walle 1994 ; Hagopien 1996 ; Joseph 1997 ; Tsai 2007).
Similarly, scholarly work on ‘post-colonialism’ and ‘post-socialism’ has complicated the narrative, challenging simplistic conceptions of linear transitions and binary-type distinctions between the ‘before’ and the ‘after’. While the term ‘post’ may imply a temporality – a ‘coming after’ – the literatures actually show a complex interplay of past and present. Post-colonial writing is especially diverse and
mainly conducted via place-based methods. The spatial and temporal fragmentation of these experiments, together with little (international) dissemination often means that their overall contribution to this field of study is overlooked. In fact, the lack of transferable and replicable models of evaluation reduces the chance of wider debate on the conceptualisation and operationalisation of accessible and shared metrics ( Chess & Purcell 1999 ; Delli Carpini, Cook & Jacobs 2004 ). As G. Rowe & L. J. Frewer (2004: 551) put it, ’without typologies of mechanisms and
estates were also built in the early 1990s, most probably based on urbanistic plans and decisions made during the old regime, December 29, 1989 is chosen to symbolically and temporally fixate the beginning of the transformation. The date itself might seem arbitrary, but time positioning is important in order to avoid the relativization of ideological and economic transformation.
After 1989, Poland went through a period of economic (and ideological) transformation from socialism to capitalism. Multiple and pervasive consequences of this transformation are most
Nikola V. Dimitrov, Blagoja Markoski, Ivan Radevski and Vladimir Zlatanoski
, geographical, cartographical and statistical, including also the analytical method and the comparative method. Thus, a combined spatial-temporal overview was developed, identifying the changes in Bitola in particular, but also those occurring more widely across the territory of the Balkans.
Bitola in the 10 th century (a short overview)
Different periods of development can be identified in the multi-millennial existence of Bitola as an urban settlement. However, particular attention should be paid to the 19 th and 20 th centuries due to the fact that during the 19
Ryszard Nejman, Maciej Łepkowski, Anna Wilczyńska and Beata J. Gawryszewska
In the authors’ view, the existing urban planning system is not favourable to the temporality and variability of urban wastelands, which complement traditional urban greenery through a range of functions such as; gardens, meeting spaces, places to walk the dog etc. Consequently, the aim of the paper is to investigate functions and possible scenarios for the development of urban wastelands in Poland. The methods used in the research include a comparative assessment of wasteland case studies from Warsaw and Tarnów and a comparison of possible development scenarios based on case studies from different cities across Europe. Wastelands were researched to establish their location, their functions, the distance from inhabited areas and the types of other green areas located within a 5 min. isochrone from the surrounding housing area. Case studies of development scenarios were researched to establish their changing functions, the continuity of design and the algorithm of creation. The authors conducted qualitative interviews, mapping, inventories of territorial marks (makeshift benches or other constructions made by users showing the way they ‘own’ the area), investigation of local development plans and literature reviews to gather the data used. The collation of results has led to the creation of a ‘wastelands toolkit’ – a tool dedicated to urban planners and decision makers.
they were given different names, like urban regeneration, revitalization or renewal. The main rationale behind these various initiatives has been to initiate or catalyse changes in the urban environment through spatially and temporally coordinated actions. Despite having undergone numerous changes over the course of years, urban programmes continue to form an essential part of the political agenda in a number of countries in Western Europe and beyond ( de Dekker et al. 2003 ). In some countries, however, including particularly the United States, where urban issues
does not exclude references to other big cities in Poland. The main method used in the work was an inventory of all shops of the Biedronka chain in Warsaw, conducted at the beginning of 2015. In order to show spatial changes in the scope of the chain’s trade in Warsaw, the information gathered covered the temporal, spatial, architectural as well as functional context ( Table 1 ).
The scope of the inventory of Biedronka chain shops in Warsaw
Multi-family, single-family, mixed housing