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Czas w filmie. Część I - Kinematograf i nowoczesność. Paradoksy związane z filmowym zapisem czasu / Time in Film. Part I- Cinematograph and Modernity. Paradoxes Connected with the Film Recording of Time

Summary

The two-part article Time in Film (Part I Cinematograph and Modernity . Part II Trans- formation of Cinematograph into Cinema) is a kind of survey, with the author's comment, of the most important philosophical and film-studies conceptions which investigate this subject. Film time is examined in two principal aspects: as time arising from the possibility of recording reality by the camera and transforming it (reality) into moving pictures (the film-reality relation), and as time connected with a film's narrative capabilities (the film-spectator relation). The discussion on this subject is accompanied by a belief in the rich and surprising possibilities of transforming time by man (the creator and the specta-tor), which film affords. This determines the mental qualities of film time, which should be examined in close relationship to human temporality.

The essential subject of Part I (Cinematograph and Modernity') of the article presented in this volume is the mysterious character of the film recording of time which stems from the dialectics of continuity and discontinuity. The discourse begins by recalling two classic theories defining film as a temporal art: Roman Ingarden's phenomenological theory and Jan Mukarovsky's semiotic theory. Both the theories define the layered character of a film work and its temporal span, which makes the theories similar. For Ingarden, how- ever the time of a film work is first of all associated with the temporality of the perceiving subject, while Mukarovsky argues that the most significant aspect of film tune is one connected with the temporal span of the work as a sign. The two approaches stem from two different conceptions and cognitive possibilities, with which we also deal in the case of reception of a film: the possibility of direct inspection or symbolic (sign) representation.

The article then discusses the ‘ linking’' between the creation of film visibility, motion and time, as well as the mam paradox of the film recording of time. i.e. the phenomenon of creating an illusion of continuity of motion (and time) with the use of motionless pictures (movie camera and projection apparaftis). This paradox is referred, inter alia, to the philosophical conceptions advanced by Henri Bergson, who developed his own reflection on the continuity of time, motion, and specificity of human perception. Bergson's criti- cism of modern concepts of time as linear and divisible, which originated from empirical and rational tendencies of the epoch, found its reference in the possibilities provided by the mechanism of action of the cinematograph right after it was invented.

The paper then discusses expectations linked with the possibilities observ ed in the mechanical way of recording reality’ and time in the early silent cinema films (the so-called cinema of attraction). In their case, the duality of film time stemmed from the paradoxical properties provided by cinematographic reproduction and its impact on the spectator. On the one hand, it manifested a tendency to standardize and systematize phenomena and time, while on the other hand, the sphere of indeterminacy or even unawareness made itself felt. This part of die article is based on studies by Mary Ann Doane, who refers inter alia to the conceptions of Walter Benjamin. Sigmund Freud, and to Étienne-Jules Mareys photography experiments. According to M. A. Doane. the early cinema (Edison, Lumiere brothers, and Melies) was characterized by two opposing tendencies: a characteristic tendency of modernity' to record and organize the flow of present time (standardization) and at the same time a fascination with unpredictable phenomena (novelty). It was only at the next stage of cinema that temporal unpredictability- was adjusted by means of narrative patterns, which made it possible to include the viewer’s attention in the time of the plot being told.

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Czas w filmie. Część II - Przemiana kinematografu w kino. Narracja filmowa i paradoksy czasu niechronologicznego / Time in film. Part II – The transformation of cinematograph into cinema. Film narrative and paradoxes of non-chronological time

Summary

The two-part article Time in Film (Part I. Cinematograph and Modernity, Part II Transformation of Cinematograph into Cinema) is a kind of survey, with the author’s comment, of the most important philosophical and film-studies conceptions which investigate this subject. Film time is examined in two principal aspects: as time arising from the possibility of recording reality by the camera and transforming it (reality) into moving pictures (the film-reality relation), and as time connected with a film’s narrative capabilities (the film-spectator relation). The discussion on this subject is accompanied by a belief in the rich and surprising possibilities of transforming time by man (the creator and the spectator), which film affords. This determines the mental qualities of film time, which should be examined in close relationship to human temporality.

Part two of the article (Przemiana kinematografu w kino [The Transformation of cinematograph into cinema) discusses the issues concerning film time from the perspective of the film-spectator relationship. The study also presents the problems of narrative time and the influence that narrative time exerts on the spectator’s mental sphere. According to Edgar Morin, cinema above all reflects man’s mental links with the world. A great advantage of cinema is the ability to make the past the present and, as it were, to spatialize time. The feature film is capable of creating surprising transformations of time, thereby approximating the human, subjective sense of time, which is fully revealed during sleep. The similarity between film and dream was also the subject of interesting discussions by the Polish film critic Konrad Eberhardt. In his book Film jest snem [Film is dream] he presents his reflections on the links between film and dream and analyses film oneirism using the examples of selected works by the most eminent directors. In contrast, Étienne Souriau, a French aesthetician, made a fundamental distinction between two basic levels of film time: filmophanic presentation (duration of a film show) and the film world (diegetic time). He also pointed out that time manipulations largely enable the rise of new film reality, and significantly influence the audience’s emotions. The article then discusses the differing interpretations of film time proposed by the French linguists Christian Metz and Roland Barthes, and phenomenologist Maurice Merleau- Ponty. The study concludes with an extensive presentation of the film time theory developed the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze.

The article gives a detailed account of his concept of the history of cinema, which is based on the analysis of transformations of narrative time forms. Its two extreme poles are “cinema: movement-image” and “cinema: time-image”. Deuleze argues that the contemporary model of “cinema: movement-image”, exemplified by works e.g. of Alaine Resnais, the French New Wave, Orson Welles, Federico Fellini, and others, evokes mental time: the time of remembrance, mental images, hallucinations, and dreams. According to Deleuze, films create virtual reality, highly approximating the one which another French philosopher Henri Bergson called “pure consciousness” (duration).

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Aspects of Musical Semantics from the Perspective of Structuralism, Semiotics and Narratology

Abstract

Music is a universal force, a widely spread mean of communication on the entire planet, because it has a strong ability to influence human emotions, even without words (when referring to instrumental or symphonic music). Thus, music is one of the most challenging arts in ‘deciphering’ the hidden message of its creator. The present paper is focused on three analytical techniques which imposed themselves in the musicology field of the 20th century – structuralism, semiotics, narratology. Our purpose is to offer a general outlook on these perspectives and some specific principles of applicability when approaching a musical score, in terms of formal construction, sonorous structures, equivalence classes applied to musical elements, energetic potential of musical isotopes using modal verbs, essential aspects in determining the narrative frame (spatiality, temporality, actoriality). Structuralism, semiotics and narratology emerged as independent sciences successively, during half a century, influencing each other in a stimulating coexistence which enabled a wide scientific opening until present.

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Art and Meaning. Messiaen Influences on Romanian Composition Universes

Abstract

In this paper, we will tackle several dominant Messiaen influences, as concerns ideas and/or technical approaches, on important Romanian composition systems, with reference to concepts such as musical character, number, Time/time, repetition. We will refer to characters as structures, characters as tuning systems and characters as musical/cultural paradigms as they occur in Aurel Stroe’s creation, and then we will turn our attention to Ștefan Niculescu’s melody-musical character with memory. Surprising but/and natural, objective but/and inspired, Niculescu opens up different perspectives on the personality of musical character as well. Numbers (what is fascinating is that they are mainly just figures) prove to be an example of simplicity as they comprise in a condensed manner technical information, emotions and musical inspiration. We will prove/illustrate this relying on three technical/semantic perspectives: poetry of numbers-duration in Liviu Glodeanu’s creation, numbers defining dodecaphonic series cells in Roman Vlad’s work, or numbers-foundation for the whole modal edifice in Vieru’s perspective. As for time/Time, which is the main character of Messiaen’s (and actually everyone’s, even humanity’s) musical, poetic, philosophical and theological thinking, we will only dwell on two hypostases, namely Stroe’s and Niculescu’s perspectives. Stroe conceives time as an element integrated in the sphere of memory and identity, as the recurrence in the present time of slices of memories involves the superposing of slices of time. For Niculescu, time is foundation, a condensation of the fact that syntax relies on two temporal categories, succesivity and simultaneity. We will dwell on the repetition “character” in the context of Aurel Stroe’s mobiles, or in parts of monodies of periodicities, screens and loops in Anatol Vieru’s creation. The conclusions will naturally follow the line of art and meaning.

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Number 13 / Part I. Music. 1. The Laws of Musical Art as a Resource for The Early Education Methodology

Abstract

The supreme function of music in the preschool institution is the educational one. As the development of the child depends on some physiological, psychological, socio-cultural and spiritual laws, so the musical art laws do with the methodology of the musical art process. In this article are characterized some laws through which is revealed the sounding, temporal, imagistic and expressive character of the music. The knowledge of the musical art laws determines the conformation to the specific to musical activities methodology; contributes to the generation/ development of the art consumer; facilitates the generation/ development of the artistic abilities of the pre-schoolers/ parents; provides the adequate integration of art in the educative act of the pre-schooler; stimulates the interest and positive attitude for art. Under the peculiarities of the musical art laws there are built the methodological suggestions for the early education.

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10. Creativity and Innovation in Visual Arts through Form and Space Having Symbolic Value

Abstract

The numerous plastic approaches of form in the 20th century are characterized by creativity and innovation. Form, as expression of an artistic language, is the cause and effect for the cultural evolution of a particular spatial-temporal area. The invention of forms depending on the factors which will impose them in a particular socio-cultural context and location environment is not everything. The challenges of the act of creation are far more complex. For the art of the 20th century, the role of the type of expression in visual or gestural language proved much more convincing and meaningful as to the data or phenomena occurring in immediate reality. The personality of the artist, his cultural character, his media coverage and exterior influences of his inner world, his preceding experiences and receiver’s contacts in a specific area are the factors that influence the relation between the work of art and the audience against a particular spatial-temporal background. The psychological and sensory processes in works of plastic art are spatially configured in structures, which leads to self-confession. The artist filters the information and the elements of exterior reality through the vision of his imagination and power of expression specific to his inner self, and turns them into values through the involvement of his state of mind. Constantin Brâncuşi is the sculptor whose role was considered exponential as he revolutionized modern artistic vision by integrating and creating space-form relations through symbol. Throughout his complex work - the Group of Monumental Sculptures of Tg. Jiu, the artist renewed the language of the sculpture-specific means of expression, though archaic forms, by restoring traditional art. Archetypes often make reference to the initial and ideal form and they represent the primitive and native models composing it. Form attracts, polarizes and integrates the energy of the matter outside the human body, and art acquires a unifying function for the senses of our spirit. We identify the forms developed by the junction between fantastic forms, the figments of the imagination of artists who communicate deep human meanings. They invite us in a world of constructive forms and mysteries, truly innovative and elaborate creations, by underlying different directions in the compositional space with symbolic value.

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The Effect of Pitch Height, Timbre and Octave Error on Absolute Pitch Accuracy. Educational Implications

function. Nature Neuroscience , 6(7), 692-695. 17. Zattore, R.J., Belin, P. (2001). Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 11, 946-953.

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