4 - 1
3 - 2
4 - 2
Note: Difference is the difference between estimates from different time points: 1 - the end of treatment program, 2 - after 5 years, 3 - after 10 years, 4 - after 18 years; UT - alcohol utility, BE - beliefs about treatment program benefits, CI - confidence interval, L - CI’s lower bound, U - CI’s upper bound
Temporal profiles of all indicators are
Alexandra Maria Rașcu, Marina Ruxandra Oțelea and Călin Giurcăneanu
Modern medicine has increasingly directed its interest towards discovering the etiology of occupational dermatitis, but unfortunately it is not completely elucidated. As with other occupational diseases, the presence of the exposure and the temporal relation between the exposure and the appearance of the characteristic signs is a defining element, but obtaining the information on the etiological factors is not always easy, therefore the attention must be directed to a systematic collection of these data. Clinical diagnosis is not sufficient, so additional paraclinical tests are needed for a complete diagnosis. Currently, more and more emphasis is being placed on experimental studies targeting the discovery of molecular or genetic markers that complement the idea of individual susceptibility in the appearance of contact dermatitis. As frequent as it is difficult to diagnose, occupational dermatitis is still a public health problem.
Andreja Kukec, Ivan Erzen, Jerneja Farkas and Lijana Zaletel Kragelj
Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the temporal association between the number of consultations in the primary health care unit due to respiratory diseases in children and the level of particular matter of 10 micrometres in diameter (PM10) pollution in the Zasavje region.
Methods: A time-trend ecological study was carried out for the period between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. The daily number of first consultations for respiratory diseases among children in the Zasavje region was observed as the outcome. Poisson regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the observed outcome and the daily PM10 concentrations, adjusted to other covariates.
Results: The results showed that the daily number of first consultations were highly significantly associated with the daily concentrations of PM10 in the Zagorje (p<0.001) and Trbovlje (p<0.001) municipalities. In the Hrastnik municipality, a significant association was not observed in all models.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that evidence of association between the daily PM10 concentration and the daily number of first consultations for respiratory diseases among children exists, indicating that there is still a need for public health activities in the sense of reduction of harmful environmental factors in the region. Additionally, on the basis of these results, it can be assumed that with some improvements linkage of existing health and environmental data in Slovenia in general could be feasible in identifying a grounded need for future public health action.
Theory. Social homecare is important for older people, as it enables them to remain in their own homes during worsening health, thus relieving the burden on institutional facilities such as homes for the elderly or nursing homes and hospitals.
Method. A representative survey of social homecare users was employed to assess determinants of the scope of social homecare in Slovenia. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate determinants defined by Andersen’s behavioral model that affect the scope of social homecare.
Results. As expected, need (Functional impairment B = .378, P = 0.000) was the most important explanatory component, followed by availability of informal care network (Lives alone B = -.136, P = 0.000; Has children B = - .142; P = 0.000) and other contextual factors such as total costs of the services (B = -.075; P = 0.003) and temporal availability of services (B=-.075, P=0.012). The model explained 18% of variability in the scope of social homecare.
Conclusion. This study showed that data on the individual level, as opposed to data on an aggregated level, show different determinants of social homecare utilization. Moreover, the results showed that social homecare is especially important in two circumstances: when older people have a high level of need and when they do not have access to informal care networks. Contextual factors had a moderate effect on the scope of social homecare, which shows universal access to the latter at the individual level.
Marija Petek Šter, Branko Šter, Davorina Petek and Eva Cedilnik Gorup
Objective: Empathy is the most frequently mentioned humanistic dimension of patient care and is considered to be an important quality in physicians. The importance of fostering the development of empathy in undergraduate students is continuously emphasised in international recommendations for medical education. Our aim was to validate and adapt the Slovenian version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy- Students version (JSE-S) on a sample of first-year medical students.
Methods: First-year students of the Medical faculty in Ljubljana participated in the research. JSE-S version, a selfadministered 20-item questionnaire, was used for collecting the data. Descriptive statistics at the item level and at the scale level, factor analysis, internal consistency and test-retest reliability (two weeks after the first administration) of the JSE-S were performed.
Results: 234 out of 298 (response rate 78.5%) students completed JSE-S. The mean score for the items on the 7-point Likert scale ranged from 3.27 (SD 1.72) to 6.50 (SD 0.82). The mean score for the scale (possible range from 20 to 140) was 107.6 (from 71 to 131, SD 12.6). Using factor analysis, we identified six factors, describing 57.2% of total variability. The Cronbach alpha as a measure of internal consistency was 0.79. The instrument has good temporal stability (test-retest reliability ICC = 0.703).
Conclusion: Findings support the construct validity and reliability of JSE-S for measuring empathy in medical students in Slovenia. Future research is required to evaluate factors contributing to empathy.
Helsinki: Juvenes Print, 2007: 74-96.
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28. Leone SS, Huibers MJH, Knottnerus JA, Kant I. The temporal relationship between burnout and
The reflexive recognition of potentials of medical students and trainees: example workshops for tutors and mentors at the medical faculty university of ljubljana
Maja Rus Makovec
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Anja Plemenitaš, Vita Dolžan and Blanka Kores Plesničar
with anxiety and/or depressive disorders: findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). J Affect Disord 2011; 131: 233-42.
14. Falk DE, Yi HY, Hilton ME. Age of onset and temporal sequencing of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorders relative to comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008; 94: 234-45.
15. Schade A, Marquenie LA, Van Balkom AJ, Koeter MW, De Beurs E, Van Den Brink W, et al. Alcohol-dependent patients with comorbid phobic disorders: a comparison between comorbid patients, pure
often used variables in explaining the differences in usage of formal and informal care (20 - 21 , 26 ). Most often, formal services are used by people living alone (availability of informal care network), and middle class older people are most likely to obtain a disproportionate share of services (14 , 20 , 21 , 26 ). The strongest enabling factors for social homecare in assessing community and society level are prices of services, temporal and geographical accessibility of services, and relative number of formal carers per users (22) , and on individual level