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Can magnetic resonance imaging make the differential diagnosis between cerebral ischemia and epilepsy?

, metabolic insult and status epilepticus. [ 4 ] These lesions are usually reversible but can lead to permanent lesions such as cerebral atrophy, laminar necrosis or medial temporal sclerosis. [ 1 ] DWI combined with ADC is a very sensitive tool for detecting seizures-related focal. The diffusion is diminished because of the cytotoxic edema, potentialized by the sodium and calcium channels leading to an influx of water and ions. [ 5 ] It has been experimentally shown in rats that a decrease in extracellular space associated with an increase in extracellular tortuosity is

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Systemic use of corticosteroids in neurological disorders


Corticosteroids have been used for almost 60 years in medicine and their roles in patients have always been discussed by researchers and clinicians dedicated in the related field. Now they are still used in treatment of patients with neurological disorders. Usually Corticosteroids are used to decrease inflammations. In this review, we present five key indications, i.e., bacterial meningitis, myasthenia gravis, Bell’s palsy and giant cell (temporal) arteritis for the systemic use of corticosteroids in neurology based on a mix of prevalence, quality of evidence and impact on disease management.

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Increased breathing resistance compromises the time course of rhythmical forearm movements—a pilot study


Background and Objectives: Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a major problem among the co-morbidities associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, muscle weakness and increased fatigability are not the only limitations of skeletal muscle function. Motor–respiratory coordination (MRC) may occur even during movements at lowest workloads. MRC modifies the temporal pattern of motor actions, thus probably impairing motor performance and movement precision. Little attention has been paid to the question of whether motor functions may be compromised in COPD patients independent of workload and required muscle strength and endurance. The present pilot study was designed to investigate the effects of a simulated obstruction (SO) in healthy subjects on their breathing pattern and the timing of a rhythmical forearm movement.

Methods: Twenty-one subjects performed flexion–extension movements with their right forearm at a self-chosen rate within a range between 0.2 and 0.4 Hz. After a control experiment with normal breathing, a plug with a narrow hole was inserted between face mask and pneumotachograph to simulate obstruction. Subjects were required to repeat the rhythmical forearm movement at the same rate as in the control experiment.

Results: The condition of SO significantly prolonged breath duration but reduced tidal volume and ventilation. In addition, period duration of the forearm movement increased significantly under this condition while the movement-to-breathing frequency ratio remained almost constant. Increased breathing resistance was considered to cause prolonged breath duration accompanied by an increase in movement period duration. The constant near-integer ratio between movement and breathing rates indicates that the change in movement period duration resulted from MRC.

Conclusions: The findings of this pilot study demonstrate that increased breathing resistance may compromise motor performance even at lower workloads. This means that in COPD patients, not only muscle strength and endurance are reduced but, moreover, fine motor skills may be impaired. This aspect has particular importance for many everyday activities as reduced fine motor performance substantially contributes to a progressive inability of the patients to manage their daily life.

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Are Depression and Anxiety Common in Hemodialyzed Patients?

. 1961; 4(6): 561-571. 5. Boulware LE, Liu Y, Fink NE, et al. Temporal relation among depression symptoms, cardiovascular disease events, and mortality in end-stage renal disease: Contribution of reverse causality. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 496-504. 6. Cukor D, Cukor D, Coplan J, et al. Course of depression and anxiety diagnosis in patients treated with hemodialysis: a 16-month follow-up. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 1752-1758. 7. Cukor D, Peterson RA, Cohen SD, Kimmel PL. Depression in end stage renal disease

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Is aortic aneurysm preventable?

resolvins, protectins and maresins in patients with aortic aneurysms and correlate the same to the severity of the disease. Are AA and LXA4 crucial to prevent AAA? In this context, it is noteworthy that there is substantial evidence to suggest that AA and LXA4 may have a more critical role in AAA compared to EPA and DHA and heir anti-inflammatory metabolites. Pillai et al . [ 16 ] reported that in patients undergoing AAA surgery, there is a temporal relationship for local acting peptides: VEGF, IL-10 and TGF-β and lipid mediators. Furthermore, the patients of

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Obesity diabetes and the role of bile acids in metabolism

[ 42 ] found in 13 type 2 and 12 normal glucose tolerant subjects, 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year after Roux en Y operation, total bile acids decreased in the normoglycaemic subjects, but were unchanged in the diabetic subjects at 1 week, but then increased in both groups with time after surgery. One week after the surgery, glucose metabolism improved as did the lipid pattern, GLP-1, and cholecystokinin. The authors concluded that the bile acids did not explain the rapid improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism or the stimulation of GLP-1. Temporal changes in bile

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Timing of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for Budd-Chiari syndrome: An Italian hepatologist’s perspective

preserved; an acute SP, in which liver failure develops. In fact, in most of the cases, clinical complications of BCS likely become evident after months or years after HV thrombosis has arisen, as either both abdominal and/or subcutaneous porto-systemic spontaneous shunts are often evident at diagnosis[ 3 ]. Progression from a phase to another could be correlated to temporally subsequent thrombotic events. However, since there is no strong evidence of a direct correlation between extension of thrombosis and BCS severity, a major role is probably played by hepatic

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