Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Sergio Venanzio Setola, Elisabetta de Lutio di Castelguidone, Luigi Camera, Salvatore Tafuto, Antonio Avallone, Andrea Belli, Paola Incollingo, Raffaele Palaia, Francesco Izzo and Antonella Petrillo
restricted diffusion (arrow) on b800 s/mm 2 (B) .
The optimization of imaging techniques
The optimization of techniques is mandatory to assess GEP-NETs patients. CT is a widely available technique with high spatial and temporal resolution. Therefore, it represents the most common initial tool to assess suspected abdominal lesions. Contrast-enhanced CT protocols are mandatory for NET imaging. To achieve a good separation of the contrast phases, short scan times and high flow rates of the contrast agent (above 3 ml/s) should be used. Scans before contrast
Mojca Jensterle, Soncka Jazbinsek, Roman Bosnjak, Mara Popovic, Lorna Zadravec Zaletel, Tina Vipotnik Vesnaver, Barbara Faganel Kotnik and Primoz Kotnik
craniopharyngioma have focused on minimizing treatment-related toxicity. These advances include endoscopic surgery and precision radiotherapy. In the last decades radiation therapy technology has improved dose conformality and provided decreased doses to adjacent critical structures (hypothalamus, optic tract, pituitary gland, carotid arteries, medial temporal lobe structures, etc.) with the goal of reducing long-term sequelae, especially endocrinologic and visual ones. Conformal RT enables a better coverage of the tumor while preserving surrounding tissue therefore decreasing
Association (ATA) Guidelines Taskforce on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid 2009; 19(11):1167-1214.
 Hay ID, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Bergstralh EJ, Dvorak CE, Gorman CA, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma managed at the Mayo Clinic during six decades (1940-1999): temporal trends in initial therapy and long-term outcome in 2444 consecutively treated patients. World J Surg 2002; 26(8): 879-885.
 Wartofsky L, Van Nostrand D. Radioiodine treatment of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Endocrine 2012; 42(3): 506
six decades (1940–1999): temporal trends in initial therapy and long-term outcome in 2444 consecutively treated patients.’ .World J Surg. 2002;26:879–885.[PubMed] 10.1007/s00268-002-6612-1 Hay ID Thompson GB Grant CS ‘Papillary thyroid carcinoma managed at the Mayo Clinic during six decades (1940–1999): temporal trends in initial therapy and long-term outcome in 2444 consecutively treated patients.’ World J Surg 2002 26 879 885 [PubMed]
 Ewa Ruel, Samantha Thomas, Michaela Dinan, et al. ‘Adjuvant Radioactive Iodine Therapy Is Associated With
[cited 2015 Sep 29];25(6):747-57. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24710663
 Urban D, Rao A, Bressel M, Lawrence YR, Mileshkin L. Cancer of unknown primary: a population-based analysis of temporal change and socioeconomic disparities. Br J Cancer [Internet]. 2013 Sep 3 [cited 2015 Sep 29];109(5):1318-24. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3778275&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
 Schwartz AM, Harpaz N. A primary approach to cancers of unknown primary. J Natl Cancer Inst
Eva-Maria Grischke, Carmen Röhm, Eva Stauß, Florin-Andrei Taran, Sara Y. Brucker and Diethelm Wallwiener
method for loco-regional procedures involving breast carcinoma, and for other kinds of tumours, there is scarce clinical data to definitively answer the question of whether ECT can safely supplement cytotoxic systemic therapy. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine if the application of ECT in close temporal relation to systemic chemotherapy could lead to increased local and/or systemic side effects, when compared to historical toxicity profile of ECT and systemic therapies. Furthermore, this study investigated whether it is feasible and safe to
Aurélie Paganin-Gioanni, Elisabeth Bellard, Laurent Paquereau, Vincent Ecochard, Muriel Golzio and Justin Teissié
Fluorescence imaging agents in cancerology
Background. One of the major challenges in cancer therapy is to improve early detection and prevention using novel targeted cancer diagnostics. Detection requests specific recognition. Tumor markers have to be ideally present on the surface of cancer cells. Their targeting with ligands coupled to imaging agents make them visible/detectable.
Conclusions. Fluorescence imaging is a newly emerging technology which is becoming a complementary medical method for cancer diagnosis. It allows detection with a high spatio-temporal resolution of tumor markers in small animals and in clinical studies. In this review, we focus on the recent outcome of basic studies in the design of new approaches (probes and devices) used to detect tumor cells by fluorescence imaging.
Eda Yirmibesoglu, David V. Fried, Mark Kostich, Julian Rosenman, William Shockley, Mark Weissler, Adam Zanation and Bhishamjit Chera
Background. We conducted a dosimetric comparison of an ipsilateral beam arrangement for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with off-axis beams.
Patients and methods. Six patients who received post-operative radiotherapy (RT) for parotid malignancies were used in this dosimetric study. Four treatment plans were created for each CT data set (24 plans): 1) ipsilateral 4-field off-axis IMRT (4fld-OA), 2) conventional wedge pair (WP), 3) 7 field co-planar IMRT (7fld), and 4) ipsilateral co-planar 4-field quartet IMRT (4fld-CP). Dose, volume statistics for the planning target volumes (PTVs) and planning risk volumes (PRVs) were compared for the four treatment techniques.
Results. Wedge pair plans inadequately covered the deep aspect of the PTV. The 7-field IMRT plans delivered the largest low dose volumes to normal tissues. Mean dose to the contralateral parotid was highest for 7 field IMRT. Mean dose to the contralateral submandibular gland was highest for 7 field IMRT and WP. 7 field IMRT plans had the highest dose to the oral cavity. The mean doses to the brainstem, spinal cord, ipsilateral temporal lobe, cerrebellum and ipsilateral cochlea were similar among the four techniques.
Conclusions. For postoperative treatment of the parotid bed, 4-field ipsilateral IMRT techniques provided excellent coverage while maximally sparing the contralateral parotid gland and submandibular gland.
Pineal gland metastasis of auricular squamous cell carcinoma: an unusual case and literature review
Background. The pineal gland is an unusual site for metastasis, and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. Metastases to the pineal gland from skin cancer are extremely rare and reported mostly on autopsy series. Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common type of skin cancer that occurs on the external ear. Auricular squamous cell carcinoma is an invasive and destructive tumour, and may cause hearing problems by local extension to the auditory canal. The vast majority of squamous cell carcinomas of the auricular region metastasize to the lung, bone, and brain.
Case report. We report the case of a patient with a giant squamous cell carcinoma of the auricula with extension deep into the temporal bone, metastasizing to the lung and pineal gland.
Conclusions. A metastasis should be considered as a possible cause, when encountering a mass in the pineal region, especially in elderly patients with a known primary cancer.