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Systemic use of corticosteroids in neurological disorders

Abstract

Corticosteroids have been used for almost 60 years in medicine and their roles in patients have always been discussed by researchers and clinicians dedicated in the related field. Now they are still used in treatment of patients with neurological disorders. Usually Corticosteroids are used to decrease inflammations. In this review, we present five key indications, i.e., bacterial meningitis, myasthenia gravis, Bell’s palsy and giant cell (temporal) arteritis for the systemic use of corticosteroids in neurology based on a mix of prevalence, quality of evidence and impact on disease management.

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Increased breathing resistance compromises the time course of rhythmical forearm movements—a pilot study

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a major problem among the co-morbidities associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, muscle weakness and increased fatigability are not the only limitations of skeletal muscle function. Motor–respiratory coordination (MRC) may occur even during movements at lowest workloads. MRC modifies the temporal pattern of motor actions, thus probably impairing motor performance and movement precision. Little attention has been paid to the question of whether motor functions may be compromised in COPD patients independent of workload and required muscle strength and endurance. The present pilot study was designed to investigate the effects of a simulated obstruction (SO) in healthy subjects on their breathing pattern and the timing of a rhythmical forearm movement.

Methods: Twenty-one subjects performed flexion–extension movements with their right forearm at a self-chosen rate within a range between 0.2 and 0.4 Hz. After a control experiment with normal breathing, a plug with a narrow hole was inserted between face mask and pneumotachograph to simulate obstruction. Subjects were required to repeat the rhythmical forearm movement at the same rate as in the control experiment.

Results: The condition of SO significantly prolonged breath duration but reduced tidal volume and ventilation. In addition, period duration of the forearm movement increased significantly under this condition while the movement-to-breathing frequency ratio remained almost constant. Increased breathing resistance was considered to cause prolonged breath duration accompanied by an increase in movement period duration. The constant near-integer ratio between movement and breathing rates indicates that the change in movement period duration resulted from MRC.

Conclusions: The findings of this pilot study demonstrate that increased breathing resistance may compromise motor performance even at lower workloads. This means that in COPD patients, not only muscle strength and endurance are reduced but, moreover, fine motor skills may be impaired. This aspect has particular importance for many everyday activities as reduced fine motor performance substantially contributes to a progressive inability of the patients to manage their daily life.

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Body Mass Index and Glycaemic Control in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study

, Costacou T et al. Temporal patterns in overweight and obesity in type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 27: 398-404, 2010. 4. Mota M, Popa SG, Mota E et al. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in the adult Romanian population: PREDATORR study. J Diabetes 8: 336-344, 2016. 5. Scopinaro N, Adami GF, Papadia FS et al. Effects of gastric bypass on type 2 diabetes in patients with BMI 30 to 35. Obes Surg 24: 1036-1043, 2014. 6. Abdullah A, Stoelwinder J, Shortreed S et al. The duration of obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes

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Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections in Diabetic Patients

June 2011, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index.html. 5. US Renal Data System . USRDS 2004 Annual Data Report. The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, 2004. 6. American Diabetes Association . Position statement. Standards of medical care in diabetes 2012. Diabetes Care 35: S11-S63, 2012. 7. de Boer IH, Rue TC, Hall YN, Heagerty PJ, Weiss NS, Himmelfarb J. Temporal trends in the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease in the

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Data Regarding the Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes

-epidemiological study in Sweden. Diabet Med 32: 1319–1328, 2015. 18. Heidemann C, Du Y, Paprott R, Haftenberger M, Rathmann W, Scheidt-Nave C. Temporal changes in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes: findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Surveys in 1997-1999 and 2008-2011. Diabet Med 2015. doi: 10.1111/dme.13008. [Epub ahead of print] 19. Huber CA, Schwenkglenks M, Rapold R, Reich O. Epidemiology and costs of diabetes mellitus in Switzerland: an analysis of health care claims data, 2006 and 2011. BMC Endocr

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Gender and Contractile Functions of Slow and Fast Skeletal Muscles in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats

characteristics. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 66: 254-262, 1993. 11. Cureton KJ, Collins MA, Hill DW, McElhannon FM . Muscle hypertrophy in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 20: 338-344, 1988. 12. Hicks AL, Kent-Braun J, Ditor DS. Sex differences in human skeletal muscle fatigue. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 29: 109-112, 2001. 13. Brotto M, Brotto L, Nosek TM, Romani A. Temporal adaptive changes in contractility and fatigability of diaphragm muscles from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Biomed Biotech doi:10

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The Influence of Hyperglycemia on the Outcome of Diabetic Pregnancies

temporal and regional differences in maternal placental blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancies. Am J Pathol 162(1):115-125, 2003. 10. Eriksson UJ, Borg LAH. Protection by free oxygen radical scavenging enzymes against glucoseinduced embryonic malformations in vitro. Diabetologia 34(5): 325-331,1991. 11. Eriksson UJ, Borg LAH. Diabetes and embryonic malformations. Role of substrate-induced freeoxygen radical production for dysmorphogenesis in cultured rat embryos. Diabetes 42: 411-419, 1993. 12. Reece EA, Wu YK

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Metabolic Syndrome and Pulmonary Function Indices

-63, 2015 17. Suneela Z, Nilsson PM, Wollmer P, Engström G. The temporal relationship between poor lung function and the risk of diabetes. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 16: 1-11, 2016 18. Buchmann N, Norman K, Steinhagen-Thiessen E et al. Pulmonary function in elderly subjects with metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes: Data from the Berlin Aging Study II]. Z Gerontol Geriatr. 49: 405-15, 2016 19. Chen Y, Rennie D, Cormier Y, Dosman J. Waist circumference is associated with pulmonary function in normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects. Am J Clin

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Characteristics of the Lipid Profile in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease

, Weiss NS, Himmelfarb J. Temporal trends in the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease in the United States. JAMA 305: 2532–2539, 2011. 9. Collins AJ, Foley RN, Chavers B et al. United States Renal Data System 2011 Annual Data Report: Atlas of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 59(1 Suppl 1): A7, 2012. 10. Parving HH, Lewis JB, Ravid M, Remuzzi G, Hunsicker LG . Prevalence and risk factors for microalbuminuria in a referred cohort of type II diabetic patients: a global perspective. Kidney Int 69

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Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus: A Current Review

. Mortality attributable to diabetes: estimates for the year 2010. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 87: 15-19, 2010. 36. McEwen LN, Karter AJ, Curb JD, Marrero DG, Crosson JC, Herman WH. Temporal Trends in Recording of Diabetes on Death Certificates. Results from Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD). Diabetes Care 34: 1529-1533, 2011. 37. Muggeo M, Zoppini G, Brun E, Bonora E, Verlato G. Mortality and its Predictors in Type 2 Diabetes. In: Diabetes in Old Age, Second Edition (eds. Sinclair AJ and Finucane P), John Wiley & Sons

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