Benjamard Thaweethee, Sirijit Suttajit, Samur Thanoi, Caroline F. Dalton, Gavin P. Reynolds and Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi
transporter 1 (VGLUT1) ( SLC17A7 ) was found in the entorhinal cortex of patients with either MDD or bipolar disorder [ 21 ], and in middle temporal gyrus in suicide victims of severe psychiatric disorders including MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia [ 21 ]. By contrast, increased SLC17A7 expression was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia [ 22 ]. Therefore, genes encoding glutamate transporters may vary in psychiatric diseases including MDD and warrant genetic study.
To our knowledge, there are only a few studies reporting
Onrawee Khongsombat, Boonyong Tantisira and Mayuree H. Tantisira
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Nasir Raza Zaidi, Mian Waheed Ahmad and Riffat Mehboob
the cases. MS plaques were present in temporal lobe, but in small number of cases ( Table 1 ). The lesions were more common supratentorially, but can be present in infratentorial locations, including the posterior fossa and spinal cord as found in 16% of our cases ( Table 1 ).
Frequency of lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis
No. of patients
Deep white matter disease
Temporal lobe lesions
This article reviews symptomatic intraventricular xanthogranulomas, based on a case presentation. Bilateral xanthogranulomas of the choroid plexus were removed surgically from the lateral ventricles of a 12-year-old boy. At 9 years of age, he had evidence of increased intracranial pressure and was hospitalized. Dense enhancing masses were detected in computerized tomogram (CT) brain scan. The lesions were in the region of trigones with extension into the temporal horns and into the right occipital horn. The masses were brightly yellow and greasy. They measured 8.5 x 5.5 x 3.5 cm and 10 x 6.5 x 4.5 cm, respectively, and proved to be xanthogranulomas. Review of 35 reported symptomatic intraventricular xanthogranulomas revealed 11 lesions in the lateral ventricles in which six of them were bilateral. Twenty-two lesions were in the third ventricle, and two lesions were in the fourth ventricle. The lesion shows no significant sexual predilection. The patients’ average age is 37.6 years for males, 32.4 years for females, and 34.3 years for both sexes. The size of symptomatic lesions ranged from 1 to 3 cm in diameter but a few were large, up to 8 to 10 cm. The origin of foamy (xanthoma) cells in the xanthogranulomas arising in the choroid plexus is thought to be multicentric including the choroidal epithelium and stromal arachnoidal cells that have undergone xanthomatous changes. Increased intracranial pressure is the significant clinical feature of the intraventricular xanthogranulomas as in other mass lesions within the skull. Surgical extirpation is the treatment of choice if the lesion is accessible and the patient’s general condition is suitable.
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Hanghui Wang, Yixin Song, Dingjun Hao and Lianfang Du
. Quantitative neuroproteomics of an in vivo rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury reveals a temporal regulation of novel pathophysiological molecular markers. J Proteome Res. 2011; 10: 5199-213.
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Chee Dhang Chen, Han Lim Lee, Koon Weng Lau, Abdul Ghani Abdullah, Swee Beng Tan, Ibrahim Sa’diyah, Yusoff Norma-Rashid, Pei Fen Oh, Chi Kian Chan and Mohd Sofian-Azirun
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Van Lun Low, Chee Dhang Chen, Han Lim Lee, Phaik Eem Lim, Cherng Shii Leong and Mohd Sofian-Azirun
13. Reiskind MH, Wilson ML. Interspecific competition between larval Culex restuans Theobald and Culex pipiens L.(Diptera: Culicidae) in Michigan. J Med Entomol. 2008; 45:20-7.
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