den Eynde et al., 2008). It is usually found at low concentrations in energy drinks and is thought to enhance the stimulating properties of caffeine.
Studies made on guarana show that the herb improves decision-making performance ( Pomportes et al., 2014 ), temporal performance ( Pomportes et al., 2017 ), task performance ( Kennedy et al., 2004 ), working memory and attentional processing ( Scholey et al., 2013 ). Promising effects in some cognitive domains were found by Haskell et al. (2007) , Kennedy et al. (2004) , Scholey et al. (2013) and Nehlig (2010
Ahmed Waqas, Aqsa Iftikhar, Zahra Malik, Kapil Kiran Aedma, Hafsa Meraj and Sadiq Naveed
quality and high stress levels.
This study has several limitations. Firstly, the use of convenient sampling and inclusion of only one medical school in the survey limits generalizability of these findings. The cross-sectional nature of this study limits inferences related to causality and temporality, and the use of self-administered questionnaires may introduce recall bias. Use of questionnaire can add recall bias in measurement of mental health indicators. Important variables such as use of pharmacological or psychological treatments among the
impairment, neurological disability, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus and psychosis itself. Only Long et al. (2015) attempted to explore the alternative causes of new incontinence. Clozapine associated nocturnal enuresis should only be considered once the mentioned have been excluded.
– The diagnostic tool was used to determine the presence of nocturnal enuresis. Those studies that relied solely on patient recall had less power than those that used a validated questionnaire during the interview setting.
– The temporal relationship between clozapine initiation