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shortcomings. Therefore, system performance is particularly addressed in terms of measurement accuracy, precision, temporal resolution, and data management. Practical examples of recent developments are given concerning this matter. Reliable measurements can help understanding processes or directly serve as basis for management decisions. Examples of irrigation scheduling based on soil water monitoring are mentioned in the article. As weighing lysimeters and soil water sensors represent only point measurements, further efforts might become necessary to obtain large
Time boundaries and landscape change: collective farms 1947-1994
The paper explores time boundaries in landscapes on the example of collectivization of Estonian agriculture after the Second World War. It argues that changing political regimes leave their imprint also in landscape, causing temporal boundaries. These temporal boundaries work as screens that influence our understanding of the past landscapes. The paper explores the "transparency" of these boundaries in the context of landscape change and continuity and tries to explain the essence of landscape change, combining different approaches to landscape.
Differentiation of concentration level of iron compounds in water reservoirs in subsidence depressions in the Katowice Upland
The aim of investigations was to evaluate the influence of varied anthropopression on the concentration of iron compounds in water reservoirs located in subsidence depressions treated as geosystems. Investigations were carried out during period of three hydrological years 2003-2005 within 10 reservoirs located in the Katowice Upland. The presence of iron was systematically measured in water and one time in bottom deposits. Measurements in taken samples were made by means of spectrometer of atomic absorption SOLAAR M6. Results confirmed varied influence of anthropopression on concentration of iron compounds in described reservoirs. It refers to waters and bottom deposits as well. Large differences between reservoirs occurred in a case of iron concentration in bottom deposits. The smallest amounts of it (3.10 g kg-1) were stated in transfer (flow-through) reservoir in Sosnowiec. Maximum values occurred also in reservoir in Sosnowiec, and the level of iron concentration in its deposits amounted to 44.28 g kg-1. Waters were also characterized by varied level of iron concentration. The lowest average values (0.0437 mg Fe l-1) were typical for one of reservoirs in Sosnowiec, whereas the maximum average iron concentration in amount of 0.4331 mg Fe l-1 referred to one of reservoirs in Zabrze. In the described reservoirs dynamic temporal changes in iron concentration in limnic waters was also stated. In every reservoir periods of complete disappearance of this metal occurred, whereas the maximum amounts of it in particular objects changed from 0.1132 mg Fe l-1 in reservoir in the borderland of Bytom and Chorzów up to 1.3744 mg Fe l-1 in reservoir located in Zabrze. The presence of iron compounds in the described water reservoirs on the one hand is shaped by environmental conditions, but on the other hand varied influence of anthropopression decides significantly of their spatial and temporal cycle in the nature.
Interdisciplinary studies on environmental evolution during the last 650 years based on the analysis of mill pond deposits have been conducted in the valley of the Jarosławianka Stream (left-bank tributary of the River Wieprza). According to historical data, confirmed also by radiocarbon dating, the water mill was located in the valley in 1351 and operated until the 1960s. The sequence of stratified deposits with a thickness of up to about 2 metres was accumulated in mill pond basin during this period. The vertical variability in the physical and chemical properties of these deposits reflects temporal environmental changes in the catchment, particularly the intensity of chemical and mechanical denudation and human activity. Analysis of subfossil Cladocera suggests four phases in the development of the mill pond. Changing along with the intensity of the pond basin water flow, redox and nutritional conditions are reflected in the spatial variability of deposits, especially their textural parameters, pH and abundance in organic carbon, nitrogen and carbonates.