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References AHMAD, M. D. - MASIH, I. - TURRAL, H. 2004. Diagnostic analysis of spatial and temporal variations in crop water productivity: A field scale analysis of the rice-wheat cropping system of Punjab, Pakistan. In Journal of Applied Irrigation Science , vol. 39 , 2004, no. 1, pp. 43-63. ALLEN, R. G. - PEREIRA, L. S. - RAES, D. - SMITH, M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Italy, Rome : Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) press, 1998. 328 pp. ISBN 92-5-104219-5 AMOR, V. M. - ASHIM, D. G. - RAINER, L. 2002

, C. & Mahler, F. 2006: A spatio-temporal analysis of forage availability and grazing and excretion behaviour of herded and free grazing cattle, sheep and goats in Western Niger. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 113: 226-242. SPSS, Inc. 2001: SPSS Base 11.0 for Windows User’s Guide. SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL. Wales, W.J., Doyle, P.T. & Pearce, G.R. 1990: The Feeding Value of Cereal Straws for Sheep. I Wheat Straws. Animal Feed Science and Technology 29: 1-14. Yiakoulaki, M.D., Zarovali, M.P., Ispikoudis, I. & Papanastasis, V.P. 2003: Evaluation of small ruminants

-Zielińska M., 1990, Niżówki i wezbrania - ich definiowanie i modelowanie (Droughts and Floods - their Definition and Modeling), Prz. Geof. 35(1-2): 33-44 (in Polish, English summary). Tlałka A., 1979, Niżówki - warunki powstawania i metody ustalania, Zesz. Nauk. UJ, Pr. Geogr. 47: 63-87 (in Polish, English summary). Tomaszewski, E., 2007a, Hydrological Droughts in Central Poland - Temporal and Spatial Patterns, Geogr. Polon. 80(2): 117-124. Tomaszewski, E., 2007b, Maksymalny czas trwania głębokich niżówek letnich w środkowej Polsce i jego uwarunkowania (Maximum duration of

D., 2005, Phytoplankton pigments and community composition in Lake Tanganyika, Freshwater Biol. 50: 668-684. Dessalegn Z., 2007, Temporal dynamic of phytoplankton biomass and species composition in relation to some physico-chemical characterstics of Lake Kuriftu, Ethiopia [Master’s Thesis], School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa. p. 90. Fishpool L.D.C., Evans M.I. (eds), 2001, Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands: Priority Sites for Conservation. Birdlife Conservation Series No. 11, Pisces Publications & BirdLife

los recursos naturales (pp. 45-51). Madrid: Editorial Agrícola Española. Crumley, C. L. (2007): Historical Ecology: Integrated Thinking at Multiple Temporal and Spatial Scales. In: Hornborg, A. & Crumley, C.L. (eds.): The World System and The Earth System: Global Socio-Environmental Change and Sustainability since the Neolithic (pp. 15-28). Walnut Creek CA: Left Coast Press. Díaz, M., Campos Palacín, P. & Pulido, F. J. (1997). The Spanish dehesas: a diversity in land-use and wildlife. In. Pain, D. J. & Pienkowsky, M. W. (eds.), Farming and birds in Europe. The

-wolf evaluation reveals the roots of the Finnish wolf conflict’, European Journal of Wildlife Research, 56(5), 771-779. Doi: 10.1007/s10344-010-0374-0. [7] Buller, H. J. (2004). ‘Where the wild things are: the evolving iconography of rural fauna’, Journal of Rural Studies 20(2), 131-141. Doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2003.08.009. [8] Edensor, T. (2006). ‘Reconsidering National Temporalities: Institutional Times, Everyday Routines, Serial Spaces and Synchronicities’, European Journal of Social Theory 9(4), 525-545. Doi: 10.1177/1368431006071996. [9] Edensor, T. (2010). ‘Introduction

shortcomings. Therefore, system performance is particularly addressed in terms of measurement accuracy, precision, temporal resolution, and data management. Practical examples of recent developments are given concerning this matter. Reliable measurements can help understanding processes or directly serve as basis for management decisions. Examples of irrigation scheduling based on soil water monitoring are mentioned in the article. As weighing lysimeters and soil water sensors represent only point measurements, further efforts might become necessary to obtain large

Time boundaries and landscape change: collective farms 1947-1994

The paper explores time boundaries in landscapes on the example of collectivization of Estonian agriculture after the Second World War. It argues that changing political regimes leave their imprint also in landscape, causing temporal boundaries. These temporal boundaries work as screens that influence our understanding of the past landscapes. The paper explores the "transparency" of these boundaries in the context of landscape change and continuity and tries to explain the essence of landscape change, combining different approaches to landscape.

Differentiation of concentration level of iron compounds in water reservoirs in subsidence depressions in the Katowice Upland

The aim of investigations was to evaluate the influence of varied anthropopression on the concentration of iron compounds in water reservoirs located in subsidence depressions treated as geosystems. Investigations were carried out during period of three hydrological years 2003-2005 within 10 reservoirs located in the Katowice Upland. The presence of iron was systematically measured in water and one time in bottom deposits. Measurements in taken samples were made by means of spectrometer of atomic absorption SOLAAR M6. Results confirmed varied influence of anthropopression on concentration of iron compounds in described reservoirs. It refers to waters and bottom deposits as well. Large differences between reservoirs occurred in a case of iron concentration in bottom deposits. The smallest amounts of it (3.10 g kg-1) were stated in transfer (flow-through) reservoir in Sosnowiec. Maximum values occurred also in reservoir in Sosnowiec, and the level of iron concentration in its deposits amounted to 44.28 g kg-1. Waters were also characterized by varied level of iron concentration. The lowest average values (0.0437 mg Fe l-1) were typical for one of reservoirs in Sosnowiec, whereas the maximum average iron concentration in amount of 0.4331 mg Fe l-1 referred to one of reservoirs in Zabrze. In the described reservoirs dynamic temporal changes in iron concentration in limnic waters was also stated. In every reservoir periods of complete disappearance of this metal occurred, whereas the maximum amounts of it in particular objects changed from 0.1132 mg Fe l-1 in reservoir in the borderland of Bytom and Chorzów up to 1.3744 mg Fe l-1 in reservoir located in Zabrze. The presence of iron compounds in the described water reservoirs on the one hand is shaped by environmental conditions, but on the other hand varied influence of anthropopression decides significantly of their spatial and temporal cycle in the nature.

Abstract

Interdisciplinary studies on environmental evolution during the last 650 years based on the analysis of mill pond deposits have been conducted in the valley of the Jarosławianka Stream (left-bank tributary of the River Wieprza). According to historical data, confirmed also by radiocarbon dating, the water mill was located in the valley in 1351 and operated until the 1960s. The sequence of stratified deposits with a thickness of up to about 2 metres was accumulated in mill pond basin during this period. The vertical variability in the physical and chemical properties of these deposits reflects temporal environmental changes in the catchment, particularly the intensity of chemical and mechanical denudation and human activity. Analysis of subfossil Cladocera suggests four phases in the development of the mill pond. Changing along with the intensity of the pond basin water flow, redox and nutritional conditions are reflected in the spatial variability of deposits, especially their textural parameters, pH and abundance in organic carbon, nitrogen and carbonates.