Alejandra C. Scannapieco, Silvia B. Lanzavecchia, María A. Parreño, María C. Liendo, Jorge L. Cladera, Marla Spivak and María A. Palacio
Charbonneau D., Blonder B., & Dornhaus A. (2013). Social insects: a model system for network dynamics. In: Temporal Networks. Holme P., Sarama J. (Eds.) Springer. Heidelberg, Berlin: 217-244.
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Di Rienzo J.A., Casanoves F., Balzarini M. G., Gonzalez L., Tablada M., Robledo C. W. InfoStat versión 2014. Grupo InfoStat, FCA, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina. URL http
Kinga Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt, Maciej Kozak and Katarzyna Kozłowska-Kozak
Ågren J., Ehrlén J. & Solbreck Ch. 2008. Spatio-temporal variation in fruit production and seed predation in a perennial herb influenced by habitat quality and population size. J. Ecol. 96(2): 334-345. http://dx.doi.org./10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01334.x
Antkowiak W. 1999. Ecological structure of Trollius europaeus L. subsp. europaeus in northwestern Poland. Rocz. AR. Pozn. 346, Bot. 2: 3-17.
Antkowiak W. 2002. I nterpopulation v ariability o f g lobe flower (Trollius europaeus L. subsp. europaeus) in
Spatial and temporal diversity of the diet of the tawny owl (Strix aluco)
The author compared diet of eight owl species in Slovakia, out of which four species prey in the non-forest environment (Bubo bubo, Tyto alba, Asio otus and Athene noctua), while the other four species prey mostly in the forest (Glaucidium passerinum, Aegolius funereus, Strix uralensis and Strix aluco). Tawny owl (Strix aluco) has shown the highest degree of adaptability when it comes to various types of environment and broad diversity of prey. Appendix 1 presents material of total 225,441 pieces of diet, which contains 69 species of mammals and at least 147 species of birds. While B. bubo diet is typical especially for high presence of bigger prey species within mammals and birds (66 diagnostic taxa), diet of S. aluco is characterized by as many as 89 taxa with higher share than the average of all eight compared owls (taxa with values 1+ and 2+ in blocks as marked by full line). Based on the analysis of 68,070 pieces of S. aluco diet collected in Slovakia, it is possible to differentiate seven basic diet types: A - from lower mountains, B - from middle montane locations, C - from colder and more humid parts of mountains, D - characterized by high share of bats (Chiroptera), E - characterized by high share of slugs (Limacidae), F - from floodplain forests, and finally G - from environment strongly influenced by humans. Diagnostic species for one or several diet types are characterized by markedly higher share than Slovak average. By the large amount of analyzed samples of S. aluco diet it is possible to gain the knowledge about structure of several animal groups from relatively little disrupted forest ecosystems and those from environment to some degree influenced by humans. Diet types represent simplified models, which are understood in a different sense than plant communities. Individual disposition for specific food preference (e. g. Chiroptera) also plays an important role by some tawny owl's specimens. Some types of prey can be further divided into undertypes (e. g. undertypes G1 and G2 in Table 1). Diet of S. aluco has been examined more in detail and over a longer period of time especially in following national parks: Slovenský kras, Muránska planina and Veľká Fatra Mts. Samples from other parts of Slovakia are also presented here according to their relevance to particular diet types. Pellets of S. aluco were collected over a longer period of time (up to 30 years) in several sites and it is chronological periodicity in presentence of diagnostic species, which stands in focus. Long-term changes in S. aluco diet during Holocene were examined in two parts of Veľká Fatra Mts, which are influenced by climatic changes as well as human activity (deforestation and pasture). The author has occasionally collected pellets of S. aluco in several mountains of Europe between Western Alps and Caucasus and from northern border in S. aluco areal, from Trondheim area in Norway. Furthermore, the author presents hereby his own material from pellets of S. aluco from the Middle East to Himalaya (in particular countries of Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Kyrgyzstan and Nepal).
for new categorizations of dietary specialism incorporating spatio-temporal availability of individual diet specialization. Journal of Zoology 300 (1): 1–7. DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12364.
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Price D, Slader P & Booker H 2014: Breeding cliff-nesting seabirds. Lundy Field Society Annual Report 2013 63: 85–92.
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R Core Team 2016: R: A language
Temporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity in a Honey Bee Mating Area of an Island Population (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain)
A law to conserve the honey bee population on La Palma (Canary Islands) was stated in 2001. The introduction of foreign subspecies was prohibited. A natural mating area for local queens was established at the northeast section of the island. To evaluate the genetic diversity of the honey bee colonies located in this area, analyses of the mitochondrial (tRNAleu-cox2 intergenic region) and nuclear (five microsatellite loci) variation were performed by comparing two surveys conducted in 1998 and 2006 (i.e., before and after the conservation program started in 2001). While mitochondrial variability changed significantly in this area over the period analyzed, such differences were not observed at the nuclear level. These data may have implications relating to the control of selected colonies included in the conservation program. This is particularly true regarding the introduction of the colonies to other islands of the archipelago.
Bogdan Jackowiak, Zbigniew Celka, Julian Chmiel, Karol Latowski and Waldemar Żukowski
. 1937. Adventivpflanzen der östlichen Niederlausitz. Verh. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg 77: 1-24.
L ambdon P. W., P yšek P., B asnou C., H ejda M., A rianoutsou M., E ssl F., J arošík V., P ergl J., W inter M., A nastasiu P., A ndriopoulos P., B azos I., B rundu G., C elestigrapow L., C hassot P., D elipetrou P., J osefsson M., K ark S., K lotz S., K okkoris Y., K ühn I., M archante H., P erglová I., P ino J., V ilà M., Z ikos A., R oy D. & H ulme P. E. 2008. Alien flora of Europe: species diversity, temporal trends, geographical
Dominik Krupiński, Jerzy Lewtak and Krzysztof Szulak
& Rousseau E 2008: Le cahier technique busards. LPO Misson Repaces & Fondation Nature et Découvertes, 20.
Cenian Z 2009: Państwowy Monitoring Ptaków Drapieżnych - metodyka oceny liczebności i rozpowszechniania na rozległych powierzchniach próbnych [National Bird of Prey Monitoring - methods of assessment abundance and distribution on the large plots]. Studia i Materiały Centrum Edukacji Przyrdnioczo-Leśnej, Rogów 3(22): 10-21. [In Polish]
Kitowski I 2003: Inter-specific and temporal differences in brood defence of adult
Pesticides are designed to kill a very wide range of undesirable organisms, but they simultaneously adversely affect non-target organisms in ecosystems. Dimethoate is an organophosphorous insecticide used widely in agriculture that has an anticholinesterase mode of action. The goal of the study was to assess the effects of dimethoate on catalase, reduced glutathione, and lipid peroxidation in the gills and livers of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton), exposed to different concentrations of the pesticide for different periods of time. Insecticidal stress caused a reduction in catalase activity and reduced glutathione levels in zebrafish gills and livers. There was also increased lipid peroxidation in both organs. Alterations in all parameters were concentration and time dependent. The probable causes are discussed.
Piattella E, Salvati L, Manganaro A & Fattorini S 1 999: Spatial and temporal variations in the diet of the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in urban Rome, Italy. Journal ofRaptor Research 33: 1 72-1 75.
Romanowski J 1 996: On the diet of urban kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) in Warsaw. Buteo 8: 1 23-1 30.
Salvati L 2002: Spring weather and breeding success of the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in urban Rome, Italy. Journal of Raptor Research 36: 81 -84.
Sándor AD 1 999: Diet shift and niche overlap of coexisting barn