C. Ding, L. Mcauley, M. J. Meitner and Y. A. El-Kassaby
The maintenance, protection, and conservation of forest genetic resources for economic, ecological and social benefits are daunting tasks. Understanding how reforestation materials are spatially and temporally deployed across the landscape is an integral component of forest genetic resources management. To improve the current understanding of how reforestation materials are deployed in British Columbia (BC), we developed a geographical information systems (GIS) method to track seed deployment across silviculture openings. Generally, reforestation materials can originate from either natural stand (wild seed collections) or orchards’ seed sources (improved seed); the latter are produced within the framework of specific tree improvement program designed for a particular species within a well-defined seed deployment area, commonly known as Seed Planning Zone (SPZ). In this paper, we present a GIS-based method for evaluating seed deployment patterns for interior spruce (Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii and their natural hybrids) within the Prince George SPZ. The evaluation period (1970-2004) is associated with wild stands and improved seed availability and the dynamic of each seed source proportionate contribution followed three distinct phases; namely, developing (1970-1987), immature (1988-1994), and mature (1995-2004) with a progressive increase of orchards’ seed use over time. The developed method is scalable across SPZs of the same species or multiple species, thus providing the means to: 1) temporally and spatially monitor improved and natural stands seed deployment over the landscape; and 2) identify areas of concerns where a particular seed source is over-represented which might pose an increased genetic vulnerability. The present study revealed that the current interior spruce orchard’s seed use within the Prince George SPZ is expected to exceed the provincial goal of performance target of 75% by 2014. Additionally, areas of excessive use of one seed orchard seed were identified.
Phytophilous community on Myriophyllum spicatum was studied in a small artificial urban lake in the city of Osijek (eastern Croatia), during the spring and summer season in 2010. In the eutrophic conditions, macrophyte stands were well developed and in the formed periphyton representatives of the following invertebrate taxa were found: Hydrozoa, Nematoda, Gastropoda, Cladocera, Copepoda, Insecta larvae - including families Chironomidae and Coleoptera. They displayed differences in temporal abundance patterns. Two separate phases in macrophyte colonization with differences in invertebrate composition and abundance were recorded. Insect larvae, particularly Chironomidae, were most abundant in the first phase, through the spring period, and Hydra oligactis (brown hydra) was most abundant in the second phase, i.e. summer period. Concurrently, microcrustacean abundance declined towards the end of the summer. Results of the analyses indicated that water temperature and perihyton biomass were the variables exerting the main influence on the invertebrate assemblage, while interestingly, macrophyte size and biomass were negatively correlated with most of the fauna abundance. On the other hand, brown hydra was negatively correlated with all other invertebrate taxa, except gastropods. Larger surface of submersed macrophytes is the main parameter supporting the increase of invertebrate abundance due to providing protection from predators and growth for periphyton, an important food source for these phytophilous organisms. Macrophyte length was positively correlated with Hydra abundance, while Chironomids were more influenced by periphyton biomass. These organisms can indicate water quality conditions and a potential increase in primary and secondary production.
M. H. McGowen, D. R. Williams, B. M. Potts and R. E. Vaillancourt
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