Maciej Kostecki, Malwina Tytła, Joanna Kernert and Katarzyna Stahl
The research objective was to study temporal and spatial relations between specific phosphorus species as well as to examine total phosphorus content in the bottom sediments of an anthropogenic, hypertrophic limnic ecosystem Rybnik Reservoir, functioning under thermal pollution conditions. The chemical extraction procedure for the speciation of bioavailable phosphorus forms was used. It was found that available algae phosphorus was the most dominant phosphorus species in both sediment layers (83%), while the lower share was readily desorbed phosphorus form (0.1%). The phosphorus species concentrations depended on the organic matter concentration. The differences between phosphorus species contents in the upper (5 cm) and lower (15–20 cm) sediment core layers were low. The biologically active sediment layer extended from the sediment surface to at least 20 cm depth of the sediment core. Distributions of the concentrations within the year and at specific sampling points resulted from the variability observed for particular points and transformation intensity. Furthermore in the following study, the reaction rate constant for the increase and decrease in the concentrations of the phosphorus species in sediments was given. It was indicated that the speed of the phosphorus species transformations was affected by the environment temperature. In the heated water discharge zone (water temp. 17–35°C) the concentrations of selected speciation phosphorus forms increased more than in the dam zone (5–25°C). It was also found that the abundance of the bottom sediments with phosphorus species was related to the oblong and transverse asymmetry of reservoir depth.
Fredrick Ao Otieno, Olumuyiwa I Ojo and George M. Ochieng
Land cover change (LCC) is important to assess the land use/land cover changes with respect to the development activities like irrigation. The region selected for the study is Vaal Harts Irrigation Scheme (VHS) occupying an area of approximately 36, 325 hectares of irrigated land. The study was carried out using Land sat data of 1991, 2001, 2005 covering the area to assess the changes in land use/land cover for which supervised classification technique has been applied. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) index was also done to assess vegetative change conditions during the period of investigation. By using the remote sensing images and with the support of GIS the spatial pattern of land use change of Vaal Harts Irrigation Scheme for 15 years was extracted and interpreted for the changes of scheme. Results showed that the spatial difference of land use change was obvious. The analysis reveals that 37.86% of additional land area has been brought under fallow land and thus less irrigation area (18.21%). There is an urgent need for management program to control the loss of irrigation land and therefore reclaim the damaged land in order to make the scheme more viable.
AISC 100 Chapter. pp. 541–547.
Gault, A.G., Polya, D.A. & Lythgoe, P.R. (2003). Seasonal variation of total dissolved arsenic and arsenic speciation in a polluted surface waterway, Environmental Geochemistry and Health , 25/1, pp. 77–85.
Gülersoy, A. (2014). Temporal change of land use in Seferihisar (1984-2010) and proposals for optimal land use. SDU Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Journal of Social Sciences , 31, pp. 155–180.
IZSU (Izmir Water Supply and Sewerage Authority). ( www.izsu.gov.tr (05.05.2016)).
Juahir, H., Zain, S., Aris, A
 Alkarkhi, A.F.M., Ahmad, A., Ismail, N., Easa, A. & Omar, K. (2008). Assessment of surface water through multivariate analysis, Journal of Sustainable Development, 1, 3 27-33.
 APHA (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 21st edition, American Public Health Association, Washington 2005.
 Boyacioglu, H. & Boyacioglu, H. (2008). Investigation of temporal trends in hydrochemical quality of surface water in Western Turkey, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination
Danijela Voza, Milovan Vukovic, Ljiljana Takic, Djordje Nikolic and Ivana Mladenovic-Ranisavljevic
multivariate statistical techniques, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 13, pp. 97–105.
Helena, B., Pardo, R., Vega, M., Barrado, E., Fernandez, J.M. & Fernandez, L. (2000). Temporal evolution of groundwater composition in an alluvial aquifer (Pisuerga River, Spain) by principal component analysis, Water Research, 34, pp. 807–816.
Iscen, F.C., Emiroglu, Ö., Ilhan, S., Arslan, N., Yilmaz, V. & Ahiska, S. (2008). Application of multivariate statistical techniques in the assessment of surface water quality in Ulabat Lake, Turkey, Environment Monitoring and
The subject of the research is one of the largest World’s mine tailings disposal sites, i.e. Żelazny Most in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Mining District (south-western Poland), where flotation tailings are poured out after copper ore treatment. The protective hydraulic barrier made of 46 vertical drainage wells was characterized and evaluated in view of reduction of major contaminants (Cl, Na, SO4, Ca) migrating from the facility to
its foreground. The efficiency of groundwater protection was determined on the basis of a new approach. In applied method the loads of characteristic and commonly recognizable compounds, i.e. salt (NaCl) and gypsum (CaSO4) were calculated, instead their chemical components. The temporal and spatial variability of captured main contaminants loads as well as its causes are discussed. The paper ends with the results of efficiency analyses of the barrier and with respect to the predicted increase in contaminant concentrations in the pulp poured out to the tailings site.
The paper deals with identification of drought in western Slovakia, which is based on soil-climatological data. For this purpose, three sites were chosen: Bratislava, Piešťany and Hurbanovo, situated on the Danubian Lowland. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) was calculated on monthly basis for time series 1981–2010, 2021–2050 and 2071–2100. There were determined the driest periods by percentage of dry months for each site. The driest period in Bratislava and Hurbanovo was in the first evaluated time series. In Piešťany we can expect, that the second time series will be the driest. Linear trend of drying area will be revealed in period 2071–2100 for all three sites. The aim of the paper is to analyze and compare the occurrence of drought in temporal and spatial dimensions on the west part of Slovakia.
Elena Kondrlová, Ján Horák, Dušan Igaz and Dagmar Dobiašová
Nowadays, there are various methods of plant biomass assessment available for the purposes of plant growth analysis. Visual plant coverage assessment is often subjective; the other methods are destructive or require purchasing some special devices. This paper presents the assessment of the possibilities and limitations of using digital images made by conventional digital cameras for the purposes of monitoring of the plant canopy development and weed distribution during a vegetation period using the example from the field experiment established on agricultural land in Malanta at the experimental site of the Slovak University of Agriculture. The study is focused on assessment of the effect of biochar application on gas emission, hydrophysical soil properties as well as plant response and yields and it was established in the spring of 2014. Downward images of corn (Zea mays L.) were taken during four sampling campaigns in the vegetation season 2015. Images were analysed by the BreedPix software that could estimate the portion of green fraction (count of green pixels) and thus the image-derived vegetation index (IDVI). According to the image analysis of photos taken during different sampling dates, it could be concluded that biochar addition had a positive effect on the plant growth (above ground biomass) since all treatments resulted in higher IDVIs at the end of the vegetative growth in comparison to control. Further, we assume that the increasing trend in the crop canopy growth was partially limited by competitive presence of weeds at the beginning of the study. According to our experience, we can recommend the software for temporal and spatial monitoring of agricultural crops development. The usage is limited to early growth stages. Moreover, it can be also used for assessment of the weed coverage.
Statistical Data Analysis for HEP , Lhc Physics, USA, 341.
De Klein, J.J.M. & Koelmans, A.A. (2011). Quantifying seasonal export and retention of nutrients in west European lowland rivers at catchment scale, Hydrological Processes , 25 (13), pp. 2102–2111.
Dillon, P.J. & Kirchner, W.B. (1975). The effects of geology and land use on the export of phosphorus from watersheds, Water Research , 9, pp. 135–148.
Donohue, I., Styles, D., Coxon, C. & Irvine, K. (2005). Importance of spatial and temporal patterns for assessment of risk of diffuse nutrient
Anna Sierosławska, Anna Rymuszka and Tadeusz Skowroński
: 1864960949 Online: 1864961007.
 Pawlik-Skowrońska, B., Pirszel, J. & Kornijów, R. (2008). Spatial and temporal variation in microcystin concentrations during perennial bloom of Plantothrix agardhii in a hypertrophic lake, Annales de Limnologie , 44, 145–150.
 Pawlik-Skowrońska, B. & Toporowska, M. (2011). Blooms of toxin-producing Cyanobacteria – a real threat in small dam reservoirs at the beginning of their operation, Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies , 40, 30–37.
 Pawlik-Skowrońska, B., Skowroński, T., Pirszel, J. & Adamczyk, A. (2004