reality taking place at a specific time and place. Second, they represent »a form of incorporated history«. And third, they produce an understanding of reality »that is open to conjuncture, contingency, and radical discontinuity«. Overall, the theory provides a framework that allows understanding social reality by linking structures, agents, and institutions in a temporal perspective.
Capital is defined as a resource that agents – individuals and organizations – have, can accumulate over time, and use to interact among each other. There are four types of capital
temporally and spatially dependent power derived from emotions to take action and the social contextualization of emotions. On the relevance of the historicity of emotions in historical studies, see Ute Frevert: Emotions in History – Lost and Found, Budapest 2011; Ute Frevert / Thomas Dixon: Emotions in History. Continuity and Change in the Vocabulary of Feeling 1700–2000, Oxford 2014. Second, those media are shifted from the periphery to the center of cognitive interest which are brought into play to transfer the fury, the hate, but also the desperation and the suffering
Chancillería in Valladolid. Ultimately, in 1597, he published a book about the office of the corregidores, the so-called Política para corregidores, which encompassed almost 2000 pages. In it, the ideal conduct of a corregidor was described: He should, it said, have a distinct sobriety (sobriedad), a moderate demeanour and maintain this moderation when eating and drinking. Jerónimo Castillo de Bobadilla: Política para corregidores y señores de vasallos, en tiempo de paz, y de guerra, y para prelados en lo espiritual, y temporal entre legos, jueces de comision, regidores
Entgleisungen bewahren. Ganz ohne Wut, und hier folgte Castilla aristotelischen Gedanken, ließe sich aber auch nicht gut regieren. Ein von Vernunft geleiteter Zorn sei den Richtern nämlich tugendhaft. Jerónimo Castillo de Bobadilla: Política para Corregidores y Señores de vasallos, en tiempo de paz y de guerra y para prelados en lo espiritual y temporal entre legos, juezes de comisión, regidores, abogados y otros officiales públicos y de las jurisdiciones, preeminencias, residencias y salarios dellos y de lo tocante a las de órdenes y cavalleros dellas [Politik für
Frits van der Meer, Gerrit Dijkstra and Toon Kerkhoff
thus provides a long-term perspective that can reveal »the fundamental dynamics of state building«. Laurence E. Lynn Jr., Public Management: Old and New, New York 2006, p. 22. Naturally this applies to the study of civil service systems as well. A long-term perspective enables us to see more fundamental developments and offers possibilities to assess motives, intentions and context of changes in civil service systems over time until the present day. A temporal perspective is not only a merit and interesting on its own but is also of prime importance for
The French Consulate in Salonica in the 19th Century
superimposition of French legal space with Ottoman spaces, both imperial and local, whose legality and temporality differed from the former.
Despite the multiple changes of regime in France and the repeated demands of the Ottoman government, especially during the Congress of Paris in 1856 and that of Berlin in 1878, Pélissié du Rausas: Régime, vol. 1, p. 117. the capitulations were never abrogated. On the contrary, they were further consolidated in the successive commercial treaties of 1838 and 1861. These were emblematic of the asymmetrical relations which the European
Edward Jenner: An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, London, 1798.
The details deemed essential were described with an extraordinary precision. The images reproduced above deployed an armada of details. The colours were essential. Time was as well. Hence the importance of a temporal representation of the vaccine: it was insufficient to obtain a pimple which vaguely resembled the represented pustule, it was necessary that the pustule exhibit the same succession of phenomena in time. Note also that the cross-sectional representation