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Omorotionmwan Omokheyeke, Francis Sikoki, Abdelmourhit Laissaoui, David Akpuluma, Peter Onyagbodor, Azzouz Benkdad and Moncef Benmansour
Surface deposits and sediment cores were collected from the Upper Bonny Estuary, located in Southwest Nigeria, and analyzed to determine spatio-temporal and vertical distributions of radio-nuclide activities expressed in Bq·kg−1 dry weight. The results of activities of naturally occurring radionuclides of 226Ra (15 ± 2–34 ± 3 Bq·kg−1), 228Ra (32 ± 5–48 ± 6 Bq·kg−1), 40K (264 ± 29–462 ± 36 Bq·kg−1) were found to be all within the range of typical values reported for coastal regions. Ratios of 226Ra to 228Ra suggested accretion for all samples with low sediment accumulation registered during rainy months. In addition, vertical distributions at the three sampling sites were also studied with the initial aim of establishing chronologies from the decay of excess 210Pb. In two cores, excess 210Pb, estimated by subtracting 226Ra from total 210Pb on a layer-by-layer basis, exhibit relatively constant activity with discrete minima and maxima. Therefore, these cores were excluded from radiometric dating. Only the third core could be dated by the constant rate of supply model, and 137Cs was utilized to validate the 210Pb chronology.
Yuya Yamamoto, Shin Toyoda, Kana Nagasima, Yasuhito Igarashi and Ryuji Tada
The temporal change in the number of oxygen vacancies in quartz was investigated by ob-serving the E1’ center in the atmospheric depositions collected at two cities in Japan in the recent past. The depositions collected at Fukuoka in March show the ESR intensities being correlated with the sum of the number of the days, in the month, on which Kosa was observed while no such correlation was found in the deposition those collected at Akita but a trend of decrease with time. The present results suggest that the number of oxygen vacancies in quartz might be useful to estimate quantitatively the contribution of the dust originated from China to the atmospheric deposition in Japan.
The IAG (International Association of Geodesy) Sub-Commission for the European reference
frame (EUREF) passed a resolution recommending application of the ETRF2000 frame as
national realizations of the ETRS89 reference system during the XXth EUREF Symposium in
Gävle (Sweden) in 2010. The PL-ETRF2000 system is comprised of EPN (EUREF
Permanent Network) sites. Their coordinates and their temporal changes (velocities) were
accurately determined on the basis of long-term GNSS observations. The transfer of the PLETRF2000
system onto the territory of Poland is realized by the ASG-EUPOS (Active
Geodetic Network – European Position Determination System) permanent sites network. The
ASG-EUPOS tasks include also system maintenance by continuous or periodical control of
the coordinates and velocities constancy.
According to the current Regulation of the Ministry of Administration and Digitization
concerning geodesic, gravimetric and magnetic warps, the accuracy of sites of the
fundamental warp (EPN sites belonging to ASG-EUPOS) may not be worse than 0.01 m for
horizontal position and 0.02 m for geodesic height. It results in the necessity to monitor the
performance of the reference sites for proper maintenance of the reference system.
A new team for modeling deformations in Europe was established within the EUREF
Working Group (The EUREF Working Group on Deformation Models) during the EUREF
2012 Symposium in Paris. One of its tasks is taking geo-kinematic models into consideration
for national realizations of the ETRS89 and maximum usage of knowledge concerning the
The paper deals with the problem of temporal validity of the catalogue coordinates and
the necessity of periodical updating them on the basis of velocities derived from long-term
observations. Although Poland is located in a tectonically calm area and the intraplate
velocities are small, some of the EPN and ASG-EUPOS sites have significant velocities and
are subject to vertical movements. Lack of periodical updating of the coordinates realizing the
reference system will cause lack of fulfillment of the assumed accuracy criterion.
Analysis of horizontal and vertical velocities of sites belonging to the fundamental
warp lead to assumption that two sites will exceed horizontal criterion in a period of time
shorter than 10 years counting from the reference epoch (i.e. from 2011.0): KATO horizontal
coordinates should be updated in 2014 and GWWL in 2021. Mores sites will exceed vertical criterion: BOGI (2021), GWWL (2015), KATO (2019), SWKI (2019) and ZYWI (2021). The
vertical component updating will require of course changes of the horizontal component
(coordinates are determined in the Cartesian orthogonal XYZ coordinate system and then
recalculated for the ellipsoidal coordinates). Besides periodical coordinates updating it is
recommended to conduct repeated processing for the entire network according to the EUREF
standards for taking the current GNSS observations into consideration.
Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Jarosław Baranowski and Anna Błażejczyk
Evidence of climatic health hazards on the general population has been discussed in many studies but limited focus is placed on developing a relationship between climate and its effects on occupational health. Long working hours with high physical activity can cause health problems for workers ranging from mild heat cramps to severe heat stroke leading to death. The paper presents the possible risk of heat hazard to outdoor workers, using the example of Warsaw. The heat stress hazard, defined by WBGT values above 26 and 28°C and UTCI above 32 and 38°C, is assessed from two perspectives: its spatial distribution on a local scale and its temporal changes during the 21st century due to climate change. City centre and industrial districts were identified as the places with the greatest heat stress hazard. The number of heat stress days in a year (as predicted for the 21st century) is increasing, meaning that heat-related illnesses are more likely to have a direct impact on workers’ health.
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Fu B., Zhang Q., Chen L., Zhao W., Gulinck H., Liu G., Yang Q., Zhu Y., 2006, Temporal change in land use and its relationship to slope degree and soil type in a small catchment on the Loess Plateau of China. Catena , 65, 41-48.
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Amati, M & Yokohari, M 2006, ‘Temporal changes and local variations in the functions of London’s green belt’, Landscape and urban planning , vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 125–142. Available from: < http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204605000101 >. [16 September 2014].
Blaschke, T 2010, ‘Object based image analysis for remote sensing’, ISPRS journal of photogrammetry and