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, J. & Bogaert, J. (2008). Influence des actions anthropiques sur la dynamique spatio-temporelle de l’occupation du sol dans la province du Bas-Congo (RD Congo). Sciences & Nature 5: 49–60 Barima, Y.S.S, Barbier, N., Bamba, I., Traoré, D., Lejoly, J., & Bogaert, J. (2009). Dynamique paysagère en milieu de transition forêt-savane ivoirienne. Bois et Forêt des Tropiques 299: 15-25 Baskent, E.Z., & Kadiogullari, A.I. (2007). Spatial and temporal dynamics of land use pattern in Turkey: a case study in Inegöl. Landscape Urban Plan 81:316-327. Bottomley, B. (1998

Abstract

Land-use change is one of the major drivers of global biodiversity loss, its study experiencing continuous development and increasing recognition, influencing main research directions within ecology. Many studies target the negative aspect; however, the modification of the natural environment over centuries and millennia led to the biodiversity, in its broadest sense, we are trying to conserve nowadays within cultural landscapes. This theoretical paper deals with the issue of spatial and temporal variations in extensively managed rural landscapes from Central-Eastern Europe. The constraints of the state of the art and arising challenges for biodiversity management in complex, farmed landscapes of high nature conservation value are discussed, through the example of Transylvania (Romania). The paper argues for the necessity of considering historical perspectives and traditional knowledge in an attempt to understand the current on-site conditions and developing realistic adaptive management strategies with special emphasis on the (traditional) rural communities, representing a key resource for biodiversity conservation

The Journal of Czech National Chapter of the Association for Landscape Ecology (CZ-IALE)

changes using time-series Landsat data in the Qingjiang River Basin, China. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 6(1), 063609, http://remotesensing.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1117/1.JRS.6.063609 (January 26, 2017). Dummett, Mark. (2008). “BBC NEWS | South Asia | Bangladesh Landmass ‘Is Growing’”, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7532949.stm (January 28, 2017). Emran, A., Rob, M. A., Kabir, M. H., & Islam, M. N. (2016). Modeling spatio-temporal shoreline and areal dynamics of coastal island using geospatial technique. Modeling Earth Systems and

Journal of Remote Sensing, 22(2-3), 487-502. Dalu, T., Dube, T., Froneman, P.W., Sachikonye, T.B., Clegg, B.W. and Nhiwatiwa, T. (2015). An assessment of chlorophyll-a concentration spatio-temporal variation using Landsat satellite data, in a small tropical reservoir. Geocarto International, 30(10), 1130-1143. Heblinski, J., Schmieder, K., Heege, T., Agyemang, T.K., Sayadyan, H. and Vardanyan, L. (2011). High-resolution satellite remote sensing of littoral vegetation of Lake Sevan (Armenia) as a basis for monitoring and assessment, Hydrobiologia, 661(1), 97-111. Hedley

-343. Jovanović, D., Govedarica, M., Badnjarević, M., (2011). Presenting And Comparing the Object Based Image Analysis and Standard Image Analysis For Change Detection of Forest Areas, Using Low-Resolution Satellite Imagery. SGEM, 2, 11, 329-336. Lillesand, T.M., Kiefer, R.W. and Chipman, J.W. (2008). Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation . 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken. Lunetta R., (2004). Land-cover change detection using multi-temporal modis NDVI data, Remote Sensing of Environment , 105, 2006, 142–154. Liu J.G. & Mason, P.J, (2009). Essential Image Processing

. Jurnal Alam Bina , 13(4), 1-24. Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics , 4, 1-23. Islam, K., Jashimuddin, M., Nath, B. & Nath, T. K. (2018). Land use classification and change detection by using multi-temporal remotely sensed imagery: The case of Chunati wildlife sanctuary, Bangladesh. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 2, 37-47. IUCN. (2005). Benefits Beyond Boundaries. Proceedings of the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress . Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. Landis

of maximum-value composite images from temporal AVHRR data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 7(11), 1417-1434. Kira, T., (1976). Terrestrial Ecosystems. Kyoritsu, Tokyo, 166 pp. (in Japanese) Miyawaki, A. (edt.), (1977). Vegetation of Japan, compared with other regions of the world, Encyclopedia of sci. and techn., Gakken, 3, Tokyo, 535 pp. (in Japanese) Nogami, M., (1994). Thermal Condition of the Forest Vegetation Zones and their potential Distribution under Different Climates in Japan. Japanese Journal of Geography, 103(7), 886-897. (in Japanese

Abstract

The study assessed the patterns of spatio-temporal configuration imposed on a forest landscape in Southwestern Nigeria due to fragmentation for the period 1986 – 2010 in order to understand the relationship between landscape patterns and the ecological processes influencing the distribution of species in tropical forest environment. Time-series Landsat TM and ETM satellite images and forest inventory data were pre-processed and classified into four landuse/landcover categories using maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Fragstats software was used for the computation of seven landscape and six class level metrics to provide indicators of fragmentation and landscape connectivity from the classified images.

The result shows that although deforestation reduced between 2000 and 2010, fragmentation, however intensified during the 24 years period. Fragmentation was highest between 1991 and 2000, leading to significant landscape variability, alteration in the general biotic and abiotic conditions and exchange of material and energy. While it appears that overall forest area increased between 2000 and 2010, connectivity and biodiversity indicators declined the most during this period. The resulting scenario is that forest fragmentation, despite the control of deforestation in the last decade of this study have certainly not receded in the study area. This may continue to have subtle negative impact on exchange of material and energy in the ecosystem, contribute to increased depletion of vital forest resources and the disappearance of wildlife from previously known areas.

Ecosystem and Landscapes - A Critical Comparative Appraisal

Ecosystems and landscapes are the two major spatial units for ecological research and practice, but their definitions and meanings are vague and ambiguous. Examining critically the meaning and complexity of both terms from a holistic landscape ecological systems view, the confusing applications of the ecosystem concept could be avoided by conceiving ecosystems as functional interacting systems, characterized for the flow of energy, matter and information between organisms and their abiotic environment. As functional systems they are intangible with vaguely defined borders. On the other hand, landscapes should be recognized as tangible, spatially and temporally well defined ecological systems of closely interwoven natural and cultural entities of the Total Human Ecosystem. Ranging from the smallest discernable landscape cell or ecotope to the global ecosphere, they serve as the spatial and functional matrix and living space for all organisms, including humans, their populations and their ecosystems. Both are medium-numbered complex ecological systems. However, the organized complexity of ecosystems is based solely on the monodimensional complexity of material processes of flow of energy/matter and biophysical information. But the organized complexity of landscapes is multidimensional and multifunctional, dealing not only with the functional dimensions of natural bio-ecological processes and the natural biophysical information, but also with the cognitive mental and perceptual dimensions, transmitted by cultural information and expressed in the closely interwoven natural and cultural landscape.