extraction converts the ECG signal to a collection of features and the feature extraction techniques are classified to frequency, temporal and time–frequency methods. Temporal methods do not provide good distinction because the variations in the amplitude and duration in the electrocardiogram signal are subtle [ 7 ]. Also, the frequency techniques are not appropriate for analyzing ECG data, because these techniques cannot obtain the temporal information of signals. Therefore, an appropriate time–frequency method could be the best option. The wavelet transform (WT) is the
Mohammad Karimi Moridani, Fatemeh Choopani and Mandana Kia
tenets of the Helsinki Declaration, and has been approved by the authors’ institutional review board or equivalent committee.
As mentioned before, the temporal data of volume signals cannot be well differentiated by the arrival of lung volume to the desired state. In this paper, the idea of applying the nonlinear method and converting the lung volume signal into phase space maps was presented. Figures 4 and 5 delineate the phase space mapping of a suitable and an unsuitable Global Signal respectively. As it can be observed, no information can be
temporal information from continuous measurements over time might not be fully utilized by conventional methods. In addition to organ ischemia, examples of a few other bioimpedance applications where this method could be relevant is cell culture monitoring (21), wound healing (22), meat quality assessment (23), needle guidance (24) and analysis of periodical bioimpedance signals related to respiration (25) or pulsation (26) or their morphology.
While the example in this study has been on a regression problem, this method is easy to convert into a classification problem
Leo Koziol, John J. Pitre, Joseph L. Bull, Robert E. Dodde, Grant Kruger, Alan Vollmer and William F. Weitzel
to the BIS at dry weight. The amount of fluid removed by ultrafiltration during the session gives us a conversion factor to relate this asymptotic dry weight BIS to the patient’s actual dry weight a hypothesis we plan to test in future clinical studies.
Future laboratory and clinical studies are needed to determine the best approach to improve our understanding of edema and how to best characterize it clinically in order to improve fluid status management and patient outcomes.
This study has demonstrated a good temporal resolution in the
Colin Chung, Martin Waterfall, Steve Pells, Anoop Menachery, Stewart Smith and Ronald Pethig
medium with 310 mOsm/L osmolality and 33 mS/m conductivity.
The mean value of f xo 2 for the cell populations shown in figure 7 is 195 MHz with a standard deviation of 63 MHz. An interesting finding, shown in figure 8 , is the reduction of the f xo 2 values as a function of time after their suspension in the DEP solution.
Mean f xo2 frequency for SP2/O cells suspended in DEP medium with 310 mOsm/L osmolality and 33 mS/m conductivity over 6 hours. Single standard deviation bars shown.
A corresponding temporal change in the low-frequency cross
Michael Bodo, Richard Mahon, Alex Razumovsky, Efim Kouperberg, Michael Crimmins, Rocco Armonda and Martin Baruch
; session 2, n=10) ( Table 1 ). The tests used to induce CBF AR were breath-holding (BH), hyperventilation (HV), CO 2 inhalation (CO 2) , Valsalva maneuver (VAL), Trendelenburg position (TREN), reverse Trendelenburg (R TREN) position. For all fourteen subjects, modalities recorded were fronto-temporal REG; near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on head and leg; electrocardiogram; respiratory volume and pressure; exhaled CO 2 level during respiratory tests; forehead skin blood flow by laser Doppler flow (LDF); and peripheral bio-impedance pulses. For ten of the subjects
Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh, Muhammad Salman Khan and Ahmet Tekin
microfluidics system for exploiting and obtaining molecular level waves with good spatial and temporal resolution. A great contribution was made by Rustem F. Ismagilov et al . [ 5 ], by presenting the novel idea of SlipChip in 2009. SlipChip is a system allowing to implement multiplexed practical tests and it also guarantees a control over the material available inside, given that it is a device based on the plugging concept. It opened the new avenues of research in microfluidics by initiating the ideas of multiplex solution extractions. Another unique service has been
T. Dowrick, G. Sato Dos Santos, A. Vongerichten and D. Holder
cell swelling of up to 10%, lasting several seconds [ 24 ].
In order to correlate impedance changes to epileptic activity, it is necessary to record EIT data simultaneously with EEG. Systems, such as the UCLH Mark 1b, which employ serial data record, are not ideally suited to capturing these types of events, as it is necessary to switch between the measurement electrodes. This reduces the temporal resolution of the measured impedance signal, while also introducing a switching artefact into the EEG recording. Switching of the injecting electrodes introduces an
Jakob Orschulik, Diana Pokee, Tobias Menden, Steffen Leonhardt and Marian Walter
intercostal space. A small, alternating current is injected into the body between two electrodes and the resulting voltage drop across the other electrodes is measured. Then, the injection position is shifted and the measurement is repeated, until all measurements at all injection positions have been recorded. This concept allows the reconstruction of images, which typically display the impedance change with respect to a time reference. The big advantages of EIT are the high temporal resolution, the bedside availability and its non-invasivity. Today, commercially available