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Understanding the Structural Complexity of Induced Travel Demand in Decision-Making: A System Dynamics Approach


Background and purpose: Induced travel demand (ITD) is a phenomenon where road construction increases vehicles’ kilometers traveled. It has been approached with econometric models that use elasticities as measure to estimate how much travel demand can be induced by new roads. However, there is a lack of “white-box” models with causal hypotheses that explain the structural complexity underlying this phenomenon. We propose a system dynamics model based on a feedback mechanism to explain structurally ITD.

Methodology: A system dynamics methodology was selected to model and simulate ITD. First, a causal loop diagram is proposed to describe the ITD structure in terms of feedback loops. Then a stock-flows diagram is formulated to allow computer simulation. Finally, simulations are run to show the quantitative temporal evolution of the model built.

Results: The simulation results show how new roads in the short term induce more kilometers traveled by vehicles already in use; meanwhile, in the medium-term, new traffic is generated. These new car drivers appear when better flow conditions coming from new roads increase attractiveness of car use. More cars added to vehicles already in use produce new traffic congestion, and high travel speeds provided by roads built are absorbed by ITD effects.

Conclusion: We concluded that approaching ITD with a systemic perspective allows for identifying leverage points that contribute to design comprehensive policies aimed to cope with ITD. In this sense, the model supports decision- making processes in urban contexts wherein it is still necessary for road construction to guarantee connectivity, such as the case of developing countries.

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Sense of purpose in life vs. creative activity motivators in senior managers

Wratislaviensis. Prace Psychologiczne, 55, 65-74. 9. Nosal, Cz. S. (2006), Time and Age: Mental Representations of Time and Temporal Orientation of People at Different Periods of Life. W: Z. Uchnast (ed.). Psychology of Time. Theoretical and Empirical Approaches, Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL, 97-104 10. Popielski, K. (1987), Testy egzystencjalne: metody badania frustracji egzystencjalnej i nerwicy noogennej. W: K. Popielski (red.). Człowiek - pytanie otwarte. Studia z logoteorii i logoterapii. Lublin: Redakcja Wydawnictw KUL, s. 237

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Business model of the enterprise as a tool of building interorganizational relationships

, “Journal of Marketing Research”, vol. 27. 11. Jarratt D. (2008), Testing a theoretically constructed relationship management capability, “European Journal of Marketing”, vol. 42, no. 9/10. 12. Kalwani M., Narayandas N. (1995), Long-term manufacturer-supplier relationships: Do they pay off for supplier fi rms? “Journal of Marketing”, vol. 59, no. 1. 13. Khoja F., Adams J., Kauffman R. (2010), A Temporal Model of Vertical Relationships, “Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing”, vol. 17, no 3. 14. Landeros R

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Creativity and effectiveness in organizations. A new approach to an old question

psychology of organizations , Wiley, New York. 14. Kaufman J.C., & Beghetto R.A. (2009), Beyond big and little: The four C model of creativity , “Review of General Psychology”, 13: 1-12. 15. Kazanjian R.K., & Drazin R. (2012), Organizational learning, knowledge management and creativity , in M.D. Mumford (Ed.) Handbook of Organizational Creativity , 547-568. Academic Press/Elsevier, London/Waltham/San Diego. 16. Kozlowski S.W.J., & Klein K.J. (2000), A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: Contextual, temporal, and emergent

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Organizational Ambidexterity, Exploration, Exploitation and Firms Innovation Performance

.1080/19416521003691287 Lubatkin, M. H., Simsek, Z., Ling, Y., & Veiga, J. F. (2006). Ambidexterity and performance in smallto medium-sized firms: The pivotal role of top management team behavioral integration. Journal of Management, 32(5), 646-672, March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71-87, Nerkar, A. (2003). Old is gold? The value of temporal exploration in the creation of new knowledge. Management Science, 49

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The Relationship between Optimism, Pre-Entrepreneurial Curiosity and Entrepreneurial Curiosity

., Menon, A. R., & Kuechle, G. (2013). Failing firms and successful entrepreneurs: Serial entrepreneurship as a temporal portfolio. Small Business economics, 40(2), 417-434, Scarpetta, S., Hemmings, P., Tressel, T., & Woo, J. (2002). The Role of Policy and Institutions for Productivity and Firm Dynamics: Evidence From Micro and Industry Data, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 329, OECD Publishing, Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing

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The relativity of luxury - a luxury product from a perspective of Polish and foreign consumers


Luxury product is a very ambiguous concept. The most commonly cited in the literature barrier to the creation of a universal definition of luxury is the relativity of the concept. The relativity of luxury nature of the product takes the form of regional, temporal, economic, cultural, situational, and also due to the individual characteristics of the consumer. It should be therefore considered how to shape the product and which marketing tools should be used, to give and keep a luxury image of it. Analysis of the literature in the field of sciences such as management, sociology, psychology or marketing clearly indicates the growing interest in both the concept of luxury as well as luxury goods. It should be noted, however, that according to the results of research on the perception of luxury, consumers from different countries, cultures show different features of the product as important from the point of view of the luxury nature of the good. The aim of article is identification of differences in the perception of luxury between consumers from different countries, representing different cultures, as well as the specifics of managing a luxury product depending on the country of its origin.

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Choice Under Uncertainty: The Settlement Decisions of Serbian Self-Initiated Expatriates in the United States

migration. Annual Review Anthropology, 9, 135–159. Goodwin, R., Polek, E., & Bardi, A. (2012). The temporal reciprocity of values and beliefs: A longitudinal study within a major life transition. European Journal of Personality, 26, 360–370. doi: 10.1002/per.844 Grieger, I. (2008). A cultural assessment framework and interview protocol. In L. A. Suzuki & J. K. Ponterotto (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological, and educational applications (3 rd ed.) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoppe, A., & Fujishiro

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Case Study about Germans and Thais: Impact of Locus of Control and Organization-Based Self-Esteem on Affective Organizational Commitment & Job Performance

:// [14 July 2017]. Twenge, J.M., Zhang, L. & Im, C. (2004) It’s beyond my control: a cross-temporal meta-analysis of increasing externality in locus of control, 1960–2002. Personality Socical Psychological Review , vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 308–319. Twenge, J.M., Campbell, S.M., Hoffman, B.J. and Lance, C.E. (2010) Generational Differences in Work Values: Leisure and Extrinsic Values Increasing, Social and Intrinsic Values Decreasing. Journal of Management , vol. 36, pp. 1117–1141. Üzümceker, E. (2016) The Limits of the use of Locus of Control in

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Consumer in Sports: Fan typology analysis

. (1997) Not now, honey, I’m watching the game. New York: Fireside. 217-227 Rozanski, H.D., Baum A.G., Wolfsen, B.T., (1999) ‘Brand Zealots: Realizing the Full Value of Emotional Brand Loyalty’, Strategy+business, vol. 17, pp. 51-62 Redden, J., & Steiner, C.J. (2000) ‘Fanatical consumers: towards a framework for research’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 322-337 Richin, M.C., & Bloch, P.H. (1986) ‘After the new wears off: The temporal context of product involvement’, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 13

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