the reform’s effect on mother’s employment decision in the context of restricted childcare alternatives. To identify the effect of the reform, I exploited temporal variation in parental leave benefits and temporal and spatial variations in childcare provision. Using German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) data for 2002–2015, I estimated a bivariate choice model of maternal employment and childcare decisions in two specifications with and without controlling for a mother’s childcare choice. Without controlling for childcare decision, the findings suggested the positive
omitted variable bias in the estimated effects of parental migration.
The results suggest that whether parental migration is beneficial or deleterious to child health depends on which parent moved. Migration of the mother has an adverse effect on child height-for-age, whereas migration of the father has no effect. This finding is important because of the long temporal reach of health in childhood; a plethora of empirical evidence shows that poorer health in early life leads to lower educational attainment ( Almond, 2006 ; Case et al., 2005 ), lower scores in high
for employment outside of transactional sex does not substantially affect the transactional sex employment-age profile, and controlling for being married somewhat attenuates the transactional sex employment-age profile. Third, these patterns are robust to including geographic, temporal, and other individual-level controls. Fourth, for all of the occupation categories outside of transactional sex work, the likelihood of employment increases sharply with age (at least in the younger age range), making transactional sex the youngest occupation.
These results are
1. Böhmelt, T. (2013). The temporal dimension of the credibility of EU conditionality and candidate states’ compliance with the acquis communautaire, 1998-2009. European Union Politics, 14(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1465116512458164
2. Case 30/59, Judgment of European Court of Justice of 23 February 1961, ECR 1961, 1. De Gezamenlijke Steenkolenmijnen in Limburg/ High Authority.
3. Case 31/59, Judgment of the European Court of Justice of 4 April 1960, ECR 1960, 71. Acciaieria e Tubificio di Brescia
13. Cooper, W. W., Thompson, R. G., & Thrall, R. M. (1996). Extensions and new developments in DEA. Annals of Operations Research , 66(3), 3-45.
14. Dawson, P., Dobson, S., & Gerrard, B. (2000a). Estimating coaching efficiency in professional team sports: Evidence from English Association Soccer. Scottish Journal of Political Economy , 47(4), 399-421.
16. Dawson, P., Dobson, S., & Gerrard, B. (2000b). Stochastic frontiers and the temporal structure of managerial efficiency in English soccer
. Journal of Management , 26 (2), 215–232. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600203
Imam, S.S. (2007). General self-efficacy scale dimensionality, internal consistency, and temporal stability. Proceedings of the redesigning pedagogy: Culture, knowledge and understanding conference , Singapore, May 2007.
Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2003). The core self-evaluations scale: development of a measure. Personnel Psychology , 5 , 303-331.
Judge, T.A., Shaw, J.C., Jackson, C.L., & Rich, B.S.C. (2007). Self-efficacy and work
. (2012). Temporal causality and the dynamics of crime in Turkey. International Journal of Social Economics 39, no. 9, pp.704 - 720.
17. Halicioglu, F., Andrés, A. R., & Yamamura, E. (2012). Modeling crime in Japan. Economic Modelling 29, no. 5, pp.1640-1645.
18. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). (2011). The federal Republic of Nigeria Study for Poverty Profile (Africa) Final Report. Mitsubishi UFJ Research and Consulting Co. Ltd.
19. Mauro, L., & Carmeci, G. (2007). A poverty trap of crime and unemployment