The process of questioning the authority of academic history—in the form in which it emerged at the turn of the 19th century—began in the 1970s, when Hayden White pointed out the rhetorical dimension of historical discourse. His British colleague Alun Munslow went a step further and argued that the ontological statuses of the past and history are so different that historical discourse cannot by any means be treated as representation of the past. As we have no access to that which happened, both historians and artists can only present the past in accordance with their views and opinions, the available rhetorical conventions, and means of expression.
The article revisits two examples of experimental history which Munslow mentioned in his The Future of History (2010): Robert A. Rosenstone’s Mirror in the Shrine (1988) and Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht’s In 1926 (1997). It allows reassessing their literary strategies in the context of a new wave of works written by historians and novelists who go beyond the fictional/factual dichotomy. The article focuses on Polish counterfactual writers of the last two decades, such as Wojciech Orliński, Jacek Dukaj, and Aleksander Głowacki. Their novels corroborate the main argument of the article about a turn which has been taking place in recent experimental historying: the loss of previous interest in formal innovations influenced by modernist avant-garde fiction. Instead, it concentrates on demonstrating the contingency of history to strategically extend the unknowability of the future or the past(s) and, as a result, change historying into speculative thinking.
-age and elderly) and significant emigration, especially of young people. This study has two goals: one methodical and one investigative.
3 The trajectory as a method of studying the path of demographic development of cities
The term “trajectory” derives from physics, where it is used in ballistics and means the curve or path describing the movement of a body (a “missile” in ballistics). In this sense, a trajectory can be interpreted in both a spatial and a temporal sense. The former focuses on the path that the body takes through space, while the second relates to
Mazozo N. Mahlangu DFMR and Jennifer M. Fitchett CDMR
flowering is advancing at 1.6 days per decade ( Grab, Craparo, 2011 ), while Jacaranda tree blossoms are advancing at a rate of 2.4 days per decade, flowering a month earlier today than they did in 1920 (Fitchett, Fani, 2018). Coupled with the advance in flowering dates, is an increase in the spatio and temporal variability of their timing ( Fitchett et al., 2015 ). This poses a threat to the wedding subsectors that rely heavily on the flowering of specific species, as their timing will become increasingly random and difficult to project. The threat is heightened in the
. The time span of our analysis is the years from 2014 to 2017, so our results can indicate the temporal robustness of earlier similar results. Another novelty is the segmentation of the analysed countries according to their geographical locations, and testing the impacts of heritage sites on these country segments. The research will show that the number of cultural and natural sites can significantly increase tourist arrival numbers and tourism receipts as well, but the impacts of cultural heritage and natural sites considerably differ between continents, giving a
In recent science-fiction literature, we can witness a proliferation of new counterfactual narratives which take the 17th century as their point of departure. Unlike steampunk narratives, however, their aim is not to criticise the socio-political effects caused by contemporary technological development. Such authors as Neal Stephenson or Ian Tregillis, among others, are interested in revisiting the model of development in Western societies, routing around the logic of progress. Moreover, they demonstrate that modernity is but an effect of manifold contingent and indeterminate encounters of humans and nonhumans and their distinct temporalities. Even the slightest modification of their ways of being could have changed Western societies and cultures. Thus, they necessitate a rather non-anthropocentric model of counterfactuality which is not tantamount to the traditional alternative histories which depart from official narratives of the past.
By drawing on contemporary multispecies ethnography, I put forward a new understanding of counter-factuality which aims to reveal multiple entangled human and nonhuman stories already embedded in the seemingly unified history of the West. In this context, the concept of “polyphonic assemblage” (Lowenhaupt-Tsing) is employed to conceptualize the contingent and open-ended encounters of human and nonhuman historical actors which cut across different discourses and practices. I analyse Stephenson’s The Baroque Cycle to show the entangled stories of humans and nonhumans in 17th century sciences, hardly present in traditional historiographies. In particular, Stephenson’s depiction of quicksilver and coffeehouse as nonhuman historical actors is scrutinized to show their vital role in the production of knowledge at the dawn of modernity.
Alkon, Paul. “Alternate History and Postmodern Temporality”. In Time, Literature and the Arts: Essays in Honor of Samuel L. Macey , ed. Th. R. Cleary. Victoria, 1994, 70.
Benton, Michael. “Literary Biography: The Cinderella Story of Literary Studies”. In The Journal of Aesthetic Education 39(3). September 2005. 44–57.
Benton, Michael. “The Aesthetics of Biography—And What It Teaches”. In The Journal of Aesthetic Education 49 (1), 2015. 1–19.
Black, Jeremy. Other Pasts, Different Presents, Alternative Futures . Bloomington
The supreme function of music in the preschool institution is the educational one. As the development of the child depends on some physiological, psychological, socio-cultural and spiritual laws, so the musical art laws do with the methodology of the musical art process. In this article are characterized some laws through which is revealed the sounding, temporal, imagistic and expressive character of the music. The knowledge of the musical art laws determines the conformation to the specific to musical activities methodology; contributes to the generation/ development of the art consumer; facilitates the generation/ development of the artistic abilities of the pre-schoolers/ parents; provides the adequate integration of art in the educative act of the pre-schooler; stimulates the interest and positive attitude for art. Under the peculiarities of the musical art laws there are built the methodological suggestions for the early education.
The numerous plastic approaches of form in the 20th century are characterized by creativity and innovation. Form, as expression of an artistic language, is the cause and effect for the cultural evolution of a particular spatial-temporal area. The invention of forms depending on the factors which will impose them in a particular socio-cultural context and location environment is not everything. The challenges of the act of creation are far more complex. For the art of the 20th century, the role of the type of expression in visual or gestural language proved much more convincing and meaningful as to the data or phenomena occurring in immediate reality. The personality of the artist, his cultural character, his media coverage and exterior influences of his inner world, his preceding experiences and receiver’s contacts in a specific area are the factors that influence the relation between the work of art and the audience against a particular spatial-temporal background. The psychological and sensory processes in works of plastic art are spatially configured in structures, which leads to self-confession. The artist filters the information and the elements of exterior reality through the vision of his imagination and power of expression specific to his inner self, and turns them into values through the involvement of his state of mind. Constantin Brâncuşi is the sculptor whose role was considered exponential as he revolutionized modern artistic vision by integrating and creating space-form relations through symbol. Throughout his complex work - the Group of Monumental Sculptures of Tg. Jiu, the artist renewed the language of the sculpture-specific means of expression, though archaic forms, by restoring traditional art. Archetypes often make reference to the initial and ideal form and they represent the primitive and native models composing it. Form attracts, polarizes and integrates the energy of the matter outside the human body, and art acquires a unifying function for the senses of our spirit. We identify the forms developed by the junction between fantastic forms, the figments of the imagination of artists who communicate deep human meanings. They invite us in a world of constructive forms and mysteries, truly innovative and elaborate creations, by underlying different directions in the compositional space with symbolic value.
Tourism Review International Vol. 20 4 235 – 253
Gursoy, D. Chi, C.G. Ai, J. Chen, B.T. (2011). Temporal Change in Resident Perceptions of a Mega-Event: The Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. In: Tourism Geographies Vol. 13(2), pp. 299–324. 10.1080/14616688.2010.529935
Gursoy D. Chi C.G. Ai J. Chen B.T. 2011 Temporal Change in Resident Perceptions of a Mega-Event: The Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Tourism Geographies Vol. 13 2 299 – 324
Gursoy, D. Chi, C.G. Dyer, P. (2010). Local Attitudes Towards Mass and Alternative Tourism: The Case of