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). Ecol Chem Eng S. 2017;24(2):285-298. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2017-0020. [4] Karbassi A, Nouri J, Mehrdadi N, Ayaz G. Flocculation of heavy metals during mixing of freshwater with Caspian Sea water. Environ Geol. 2008;53(8):1811-1816. DOI: 10.1007/s00254-007-0786-7. [5] Najafpour S, Alkarkhi A, Kadir M, Najafpour GD. Evaluation of spatial and temporal variation in river water quality. Int J Environ Res. 2009;2(4):349-358. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.11.001. [6] Wahaab RA, Badawy MI. Water quality assessment of the River Nile system: an overview. Biomed Environ Sci. 2004

en Afrique : perspectives pour leur conservation. VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement [En ligne], Volume 3 Numéro 1 | avril 2002, [En ligne], mis en ligne le 01 avril 2002. URL: Consulté le 25 novembre 2010. Millogo-Rasolodimby J. 2001: L’homme, le climat et les ressources alimentaires végétales en période de crise de subsistance au Burkina Faso. Thèse de Doctorat d’état, Université de Ouagadougou, 250 p. Munsi M., Areendran G., Joshi P.K. 2012: Modeling spatio-temporal change patterns of forest cover: a


The present study analyzes the spatial temporal variation of maximum flow in Slănic Teleajen and Prahova river basins (upper basin). Maximum flow rates were analyzed in relation to the threshold values corresponding to the Defence Levels respectively the maximum flow which determines exceeding Warning and Flooding Levels. The series of major floods events, selected on the basis of the threshold values mentioned above, were then statistically analyzed to determine trends (Mann-Kendall test) and the variations in the level of frequency, analysis which was applied seasonally and annually. The analysis made revealed that trends in terms of maximum flow rates in the Prahova upper basin were generally negative (decreasing), statistically significant for the February, May, July, August and the annual average, while in Slanic river basin, the trend was mostly positive, statistically significant for October.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal variations of selected heavy metals level in anaerobic fermented and dewatered sewage sludge. Sewage sludge samples were collected in different seasons and years from three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Northern Greece, in Kavala (Kavala and Palio localities) and Drama (Drama locality) Prefectures. An investigation of the potential of sludge utilization in agriculture was performed, based on the comparison of average total heavy metal concentrations and of chromium species (hexavalent, trivalent) concentrations with the allowed values according to the Council Directive 86/278/EEC and Greek national legislation (Joint Cabinet Decision 80568/4225/91) guidelines. In this regard, all the investigated heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg) and chromium species Cr(VI) and Cr(III) have average concentrations (dry matter weight) well below the legislated thresholds for soil application, as following: 2.12 mg kg−1 Cd; 103.7 mg kg−1 Cr; 136.4 mg kg−1 Cu; < 0.2 mg kg−1 Hg; 29.1 mg kg−1 Ni; 62.0 mg kg−1 Pb; 1253.2 mg kg−1 Zn; 1.56 mg kg−1 Cr(VI) and 115.7 mg kg−1 Cr(III). Values of relative standard deviation (RSD) indicate a low or moderate temporal variability for domestic-related metals Zn (10.3-14.7%), Pb (27.9-44.5%) and Cu (33.5-34.2%), and high variability for the metals of mixed origin or predominantly resulted from commercial activities, such as Ni (42.4-50.7%), Cd (44.3-85.5%) and Cr (58.2-102.0%). For some elements the seasonal occurrence pattern is the same for Kavala and Palio sludge, as following: a) Cd and Cr: spring>summer>winter; b) Cu, Ni and Pb: winter>spring>summer. On average, in summer months (dry season) metal concentrations are lower than in spring and winter (wet seasons), with the exception of Zn. For Kavala and Palio the results demonstrate that the increased number of inhabitants (almost doubled) in summer time due to tourism does not influence the metal levels in sludge. Comparing the results obtained for similar spring-summer-winter sequences in 2007 and 2010/11 and for the spring season in 2007, 2008 and 2010, it can be noticed that, in general, the average heavy metal contents show an increasing tendency towards the last year. In all the measurement periods, the Palio sludge had the highest metal contents and Kavala sludge the lowest, leading to the conclusion that the WWTP operating process rather than population has a significant effect upon the heavy metal content of sludge. Cr(VI)/Cr(total) concentration ratios are higher for Kavala sludge in the majority of sampling campaigns, followed by Drama and Palio sludge. The metals which present moderate to strong positive correlation have common origin, which could be a domestic-commercial mixed source.

v učenije o geosystemach [in Russian]. Novosibirsk: Nauka. [33] Tansley, A. G. (1935), The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16, 284–307. [34] Turner, M. (1990), Spatial and temporal analysis of the landscape patterns. Landscape Ecology 4(1), 21–30. [35] Vidal de la Blache, P. (1922), Principes de géographie humaine. Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica – . [36] Wu, J. (2013), Key concepts and research topics in landscape ecology revisited: 30 years after the

Viticulture 54(3), 143-149. [26] Schreiner, R. P.. Linderman. R. G. (2005), Mycorrhizal colonization in dryland vineyards of the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Small Fruits Review 4(3), 41-55. [27] Schreiner, R. P. (2005), Mycorrhizas and mineral acquisition in grapevines. In: Christensen. L. P., Smart, D. R. (eds.), Proceedings of the Soil Environment and Vine Mineral Nutrition Symposium. American Society for Enology and Viticulture, Davis, 49-60. [28] Schreiner. R. P. (2005), Spatial and temporal Variation of roots, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. and plant and soil nutrients

change with a high resolution spatio-temporal dataset. Landscape and Urban Planning 81, 91-103. [23] Pătru-Stupariua, I., Stupariub, M-S., Cuculicia, R., Huzuia, A. (2012, Understanding landscape change using historical maps. Case study Sinaia, Romania. Journal of Maps 7, 206- 220. DOI: 10.4113/jom.2011.1151. [24] Popelkováa, R., Mulkováa, M. (2012), Landscape changes mapping: central part of Ostrava- Karviná Mining District, Czech Republic. Journal of Maps 8, 363-375. DOI: 10.4113/jom.2011.1165. [25] San-Antonio-Gómez, C., Velilla, C., Manzano-Agugliaro, F. (2014

References Chelaru D.-A., Ursu A., Roșca B., Mihai F. C. (2013), Analysing Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Built-up Area in Bistrița Subcarpathian Valley, Romania Using GIS Techniques, 13th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2013, Conference Proceedings - Informatics, geoinformatics and remote sensing, pp. 637 - 645. Colaninno N., Cerda Troncoso J., Roca Cladera J., (2011), Spatial patterns of land use: morphology and demography, in a dynamic evaluation of urban sprawl phenomena along the Spanish Mediterranea coast Irwin, E. G

References [1] Steinnes E, Uggerud HTh, Pfaffhuber KA, Berg T. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway, National moss survey 2015. Norwegian Environmental Agency. 2016; M-594:57. ISBN 9788242528599, . [2] European Atlas: Spatial and Temporal Trends in Heavy Metal Accumulation in Mosses in Europe (1990-2005). United Kingdom: UNECE ICP Vegetation; 2008. ISBN 978185531239-5. [3] Harmens H, Norris D, Mills G, and

., Dessens, J., Garsia-Ortega, E., Merino, A. (2013), Climatic Trends in Hail Precipitation in France: Spatial, Altitudinal, and Temporal Variability. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, p. 10. Hazardous meteorological phenomena in Ukraine and Moldova. (1991). Edited by Babichenko, V. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat (in Russian). Kunz, M., J. Sander, and C. Kottmeiera. (2009), Recent trends of thunderstorm and hailstorm frequency and their relation to atmospheric characteristics in southwest Germany. International Journal of