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References Ågren J., Ehrlén J. & Solbreck Ch. 2008. Spatio-temporal variation in fruit production and seed predation in a perennial herb influenced by habitat quality and population size. J. Ecol. 96(2): 334-345. Antkowiak W. 1999. Ecological structure of Trollius europaeus L. subsp. europaeus in northwestern Poland. Rocz. AR. Pozn. 346, Bot. 2: 3-17. Antkowiak W. 2002. I nterpopulation v ariability o f g lobe flower (Trollius europaeus L. subsp. europaeus) in north-western Poland. Rocz. AR. Pozn. 347, Bot 5: 3

References AHMAD, M. D. - MASIH, I. - TURRAL, H. 2004. Diagnostic analysis of spatial and temporal variations in crop water productivity: A field scale analysis of the rice-wheat cropping system of Punjab, Pakistan. In Journal of Applied Irrigation Science , vol. 39 , 2004, no. 1, pp. 43-63. ALLEN, R. G. - PEREIRA, L. S. - RAES, D. - SMITH, M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Italy, Rome : Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) press, 1998. 328 pp. ISBN 92-5-104219-5 AMOR, V. M. - ASHIM, D. G. - RAINER, L. 2002

, C. & Mahler, F. 2006: A spatio-temporal analysis of forage availability and grazing and excretion behaviour of herded and free grazing cattle, sheep and goats in Western Niger. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 113: 226-242. SPSS, Inc. 2001: SPSS Base 11.0 for Windows User’s Guide. SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL. Wales, W.J., Doyle, P.T. & Pearce, G.R. 1990: The Feeding Value of Cereal Straws for Sheep. I Wheat Straws. Animal Feed Science and Technology 29: 1-14. Yiakoulaki, M.D., Zarovali, M.P., Ispikoudis, I. & Papanastasis, V.P. 2003: Evaluation of small ruminants


This paper presents an analysis of the flow regime of the Timiş River in Romania. The analysis was based on hydrological data provided by the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management in specialized publications (hydrological yearbooks or online series). The data were supplemented by personal observations in the field. The following leakage parameters were analyzed: average flow (monthly, seasonal, annual), maximum flow (especially flash floods) and minimum leakage. This paper highlights the link between hydrological parameters and conditioning factors of spatial distribution (characteristics of the geological substratum, relief units, elevation, slope) and temporal variation of flow (in function of type of supply, and variability and variation of climatic conditions).

, J. & Bogaert, J. (2008). Influence des actions anthropiques sur la dynamique spatio-temporelle de l’occupation du sol dans la province du Bas-Congo (RD Congo). Sciences & Nature 5: 49–60 Barima, Y.S.S, Barbier, N., Bamba, I., Traoré, D., Lejoly, J., & Bogaert, J. (2009). Dynamique paysagère en milieu de transition forêt-savane ivoirienne. Bois et Forêt des Tropiques 299: 15-25 Baskent, E.Z., & Kadiogullari, A.I. (2007). Spatial and temporal dynamics of land use pattern in Turkey: a case study in Inegöl. Landscape Urban Plan 81:316-327. Bottomley, B. (1998

population. Journal of Applied Ecology , 48 (3): 806–814. H olling , C.S., 1959. Some characteristics of simple types of predation and parasitism. The Canadian Entomologist, 91 (7): 385–398. K aranth , K. U., S rivathsa , A., V asudev , D., P uri , M., P arameshwaran , R., K umar , N.S., 2017. Spatio-temporal interactions facilitate large carnivore sympatry across a resource gradient. Proceedings of the the Royal Society. Biological Sciences , 284 (1848): 20161860.


Land-use change is one of the major drivers of global biodiversity loss, its study experiencing continuous development and increasing recognition, influencing main research directions within ecology. Many studies target the negative aspect; however, the modification of the natural environment over centuries and millennia led to the biodiversity, in its broadest sense, we are trying to conserve nowadays within cultural landscapes. This theoretical paper deals with the issue of spatial and temporal variations in extensively managed rural landscapes from Central-Eastern Europe. The constraints of the state of the art and arising challenges for biodiversity management in complex, farmed landscapes of high nature conservation value are discussed, through the example of Transylvania (Romania). The paper argues for the necessity of considering historical perspectives and traditional knowledge in an attempt to understand the current on-site conditions and developing realistic adaptive management strategies with special emphasis on the (traditional) rural communities, representing a key resource for biodiversity conservation

changes using time-series Landsat data in the Qingjiang River Basin, China. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 6(1), 063609, (January 26, 2017). Dummett, Mark. (2008). “BBC NEWS | South Asia | Bangladesh Landmass ‘Is Growing’”, (January 28, 2017). Emran, A., Rob, M. A., Kabir, M. H., & Islam, M. N. (2016). Modeling spatio-temporal shoreline and areal dynamics of coastal island using geospatial technique. Modeling Earth Systems and

Journal of Remote Sensing, 22(2-3), 487-502. Dalu, T., Dube, T., Froneman, P.W., Sachikonye, T.B., Clegg, B.W. and Nhiwatiwa, T. (2015). An assessment of chlorophyll-a concentration spatio-temporal variation using Landsat satellite data, in a small tropical reservoir. Geocarto International, 30(10), 1130-1143. Heblinski, J., Schmieder, K., Heege, T., Agyemang, T.K., Sayadyan, H. and Vardanyan, L. (2011). High-resolution satellite remote sensing of littoral vegetation of Lake Sevan (Armenia) as a basis for monitoring and assessment, Hydrobiologia, 661(1), 97-111. Hedley


In the present paper, we identified landscape typologies in the “Iron Gates” Natural Park from Romania and assessed their dynamic starting with 1990 to 2006. We evaluated the dynamic of landscapes based on land use and land covers changes as extracted from the Corine Land Cover databases. We found no major modifications in the distribution of landscapes, only 4.4% of the study area recording changes. Forestry landscapes have the highest ratio of change (on 1.5% from the total surface of the park), with significant decreases also recorded in landscapes of shrub and rare vegetation, as well as mixed agricultural landscapes. Among the active transformation processes, forestation (on 45% of the modified surface) and agricultural activities (20%) recorded the highest distribution.