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, Lawrence YR, Mileshkin L. Cancer of unknown primary: a population-based analysis of temporal change and socioeconomic disparities. Br J Cancer [Internet]. 2013 Sep 3 [cited 2015 Sep 29];109(5):1318-24. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3778275&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract  Schwartz AM, Harpaz N. A primary approach to cancers of unknown primary. J Natl Cancer Inst [Internet]. 2013 Jul 5 [cited 2015 Jul 31];105(11):759-61. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23641044  Pentheroudakis G, Briasoulis E
-regional procedures involving breast carcinoma, and for other kinds of tumours, there is scarce clinical data to definitively answer the question of whether ECT can safely supplement cytotoxic systemic therapy. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine if the application of ECT in close temporal relation to systemic chemotherapy could lead to increased local and/or systemic side effects, when compared to historical toxicity profile of ECT and systemic therapies. Furthermore, this study investigated whether it is feasible and safe to apply ECT as a concomitant
Background. One of the major challenges in cancer therapy is to improve early detection and prevention using novel targeted cancer diagnostics. Detection requests specific recognition. Tumor markers have to be ideally present on the surface of cancer cells. Their targeting with ligands coupled to imaging agents make them visible/detectable.
Conclusions. Fluorescence imaging is a newly emerging technology which is becoming a complementary medical method for cancer diagnosis. It allows detection with a high spatio-temporal resolution of tumor markers in small animals and in clinical studies. In this review, we focus on the recent outcome of basic studies in the design of new approaches (probes and devices) used to detect tumor cells by fluorescence imaging.
Background. We conducted a dosimetric comparison of an ipsilateral beam arrangement for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with off-axis beams.
Patients and methods. Six patients who received post-operative radiotherapy (RT) for parotid malignancies were used in this dosimetric study. Four treatment plans were created for each CT data set (24 plans): 1) ipsilateral 4-field off-axis IMRT (4fld-OA), 2) conventional wedge pair (WP), 3) 7 field co-planar IMRT (7fld), and 4) ipsilateral co-planar 4-field quartet IMRT (4fld-CP). Dose, volume statistics for the planning target volumes (PTVs) and planning risk volumes (PRVs) were compared for the four treatment techniques.
Results. Wedge pair plans inadequately covered the deep aspect of the PTV. The 7-field IMRT plans delivered the largest low dose volumes to normal tissues. Mean dose to the contralateral parotid was highest for 7 field IMRT. Mean dose to the contralateral submandibular gland was highest for 7 field IMRT and WP. 7 field IMRT plans had the highest dose to the oral cavity. The mean doses to the brainstem, spinal cord, ipsilateral temporal lobe, cerrebellum and ipsilateral cochlea were similar among the four techniques.
Conclusions. For postoperative treatment of the parotid bed, 4-field ipsilateral IMRT techniques provided excellent coverage while maximally sparing the contralateral parotid gland and submandibular gland.
Pineal gland metastasis of auricular squamous cell carcinoma: an unusual case and literature review
Background. The pineal gland is an unusual site for metastasis, and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. Metastases to the pineal gland from skin cancer are extremely rare and reported mostly on autopsy series. Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common type of skin cancer that occurs on the external ear. Auricular squamous cell carcinoma is an invasive and destructive tumour, and may cause hearing problems by local extension to the auditory canal. The vast majority of squamous cell carcinomas of the auricular region metastasize to the lung, bone, and brain.
Case report. We report the case of a patient with a giant squamous cell carcinoma of the auricula with extension deep into the temporal bone, metastasizing to the lung and pineal gland.
Conclusions. A metastasis should be considered as a possible cause, when encountering a mass in the pineal region, especially in elderly patients with a known primary cancer.
Time dependence of electric field effects on cell membranes. A review for a critical selection of pulse duration for therapeutical applications
Background. Electropulsation is one of the non-viral methods successfully used to transfer drugs and genes into living cells in vitro as in vivo. This approach shows promise in field of gene and cellular therapies. This presentation first describes the temporal factors controlling electropermeabilization to small molecules (< 4kDa) and then the processes supporting DNA transfer in vitro. The description of in vitro events brings our attention on the processes occurring before (s), during (ms) and after electropulsation (ms to hours) of DNA and cells. They all appear to be multistep events with well defined kinetics. They cannot be described as just punching holes in a lipid matrix in a two states process.
Conclusions. The faster events (may be starting on the ns time scale) appear to be under the control of the external field while the slower ones are linked to the cell metabolism. Investigating the associated collective molecular reorganization by fast kinetics methods and molecular dynamics simulation will help in their safe developments for the in vivo processes and their present and potential clinical applications.
Depending on the epilepsy syndrome, dietary changes, neurostimulation or surgery may be considered as treatment options in patients whose seizures do not respond to medication therapy. With the advancement of surgical techniques and devices, surgical treatment has become the treatment of choice in patients who are unresponsive to medication therapy. In selected patients with focal structural lesions such as cortical dysplasia, mesial temporal sclerosis, vascular malformations and in some paediatric epilepsy syndromes, surgery may substantially reduce the frequency of