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Effects of Varying Tobacco Rod Circumference on Cigarette Combustion: An Experimental Investigation

: Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology, edited by D.L. Davis and M.T. Nielsen, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 353–387. 6. Irwin, W.D.E.: The Effect of Circumference on Mainstream Deliveries and Composition: Progress Report 2; BAT Report No RD. 2135, BAT UK, February 22, 1989. Available at: (accessed February 2019). 7. Liu, C., Y. DeGrandpré, A. Porter, A. Griffiths, K.G. McAdam, R. Voisine, F. Côté, and C.J. Proctor: The Use of a Novel Tobacco Treatment Process to Reduce

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Challenges of ERAU’s First Suborbital Flight Aboard Blue Origin’s New Shepard M7 for the Cell Research Experiment In Microgravity (CRExIM)

Introduction In early 2016, the Department of Applied Aviation Sciences (AAS) at the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) was granted a suborbital flight opportunity to work on a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) research project. The Spaceflight Operations team in the AAS department was already developing other suborbital payloads as part of the Arete STEM Project (ARETE) to demonstrate joint commercial spaceflight activities. The main aim of this research was to investigate the effect of microgravity on T-cells and to

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Effect of macromolecular mass transport in microgravity protein crystallization

impurities in the crystallization experiments, were labeled with the fluorescent dyes Alexa Fluor® 488 TFP ester and Alexa Fluor® 594 NHS ester, respectively. The Alexa Fluor® 488 TFP ester (C 39 H 44 F 4 N 4 O 11 S 2 , M W = 884.9 Da) and Alexa Fluor® 594 NHS ester (C 39 H 37 N 3 O 13 S 2 , M W = 819.8 Da) were obtained from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Life Technologies). The Alexa Fluor® 488 TFP ester (5 mg) was dissolved in 0.5 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide. The reactive dye solution (80 μL) was slowly added to the stirring Pf GST tetramer solution (10 mg/ml in PBS). The

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Investigation of Murine T-Cells and Cancer Cells under Thermal Stressors and 2D Slow Rotating System Effects as a Testbed for Suborbital Flights

environment, and not by microgravity. Therefore, there is a great need to design robust and reproducible scientific experiments accounting for all possible confounders and test them prior to actual flights. The majority of microgravity-based research studies are being conducted using either longer missions at ISS (International Space Station) or by employing simulated gravity technologies that we mention next. Gravitational interactions of biological systems have been investigated for decades using some of these valuable technologies, such as fast rotating clinostats, 3D

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Impact of g-Load Shift on Temporal Expression Pattern of Apoptosis-linked Proteins in the Rat Mammary Gland

gland tissue collection. Immunohistochemistry The procedures for specimen preparation, immunohistochemistry optimization, and antibody validation are same as detailed in our recent study ( Alula et al., 2018 ). Briefly, we used Ventana’s automated staining system (Discovery XT; Ventana Medical Systems, Tucson, AZ) to process and stain the slides. The primary antibodies utilized were mouse monoclonal anti-p53 (CS2524; Cell signaling Technology, Danvers, MA), rabbit polyclonal anti-CC-3 (CS9661; Cell signaling Technology, Danvers, MA), and rabbit polyclonal anti

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A High-Altitude Balloon Platform for Space Life Sciences Education

.1074 Smith D, Sowa M (2017) Ballooning for Biologists. Gravitational and Space Research , 5(1), 52-73. Smith D Sowa M 2017 Ballooning for Biologists Gravitational and Space Research 5 1 52 73 Yajima N, Izutsu N, Imamura T, Abe T (2004) Scientific Ballooning: Technology and Applications of Exploration Balloons Floating in the Stratosphere and the Atmospheres of Other Planets . New York: Springer. Yajima N Izutsu N Imamura T Abe T 2004 Scientific Ballooning: Technology and Applications of Exploration Balloons Floating in the

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Musculoskeletal Outcomes from Chronic High-Speed High-Impact Resistive Exercise

-impulse device evoked large and significant gains in left leg’s calcaneal bone mineral content (+29%) and density (+33%), as well as a significant decline in osteoclast activity ( Caruso et al., 2018 ). Such results hold much promise, as the calcaneus incurs among the largest in-flight losses that are exacerbated by heightened osteoclast activity (Heer et al. 2005; LeBlanc et al., 2007 ). The high-speed high-impact device, called an Inertial Exercise Trainer (IET; Impulse Technologies, Newnan, GA), has a mass sled that traverses its 1.9-m track parallel to the Earth

Open access
Biomarkers development for early detection of cancer: Reducing the burden of cancer in the ageing society


The ageing process in the European society will become one of the key driving forces of change over the next decades. The specific demands of older generations constitute a key market of the future, and the pressure to improve and expand health services increases, especially as far as chronic diseases, such as cancer. Availability of cost effective cancer early detection protocols, based on predictive biomarkers, will improve patients management reducing consequently the high costs associated to treating patients when the disease is at an advanced stage.

Open access