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The following article is about the presence of English loanwords in the language used by young gamers. It is of research nature - it is based on the recognition, around the mother tongue, of primary and secondary school students. It emerges from survey research whose aim was to examine how the language of young Poles is influenced by information technology, especially computer games and films related to gaming. The most important aim of the research was to diagnose to what extent and in what form English vocabulary used in computer games penetrates everyday language of students. It was also important to establish the way in which Polish absorbs loaned vocabulary in natural communication and adjusts it to its rules (inflexion, syntax, word building). The questions prepared for the purpose of the survey examined linguistic intuition of students who had the possibility to choose the lexicon (English word and its Polish equivalent), as well as show the understanding of words typical of computer games which derive from English and are also changed in some way. The research tool also examined the student's lexical competence which was supposed to be directly related to the environment of new technology and computer games as well as examined the use of given lexicon in various syntactic constructs. The foundation for the described results and the topic discussed in this article were the thoughts regarding the role and the influence of new technological and socio-cultural reality and their influence on the changes in the language.
The aim of this investigation is a comparative description of translation and interpretation in terms of modern communication technology, translation, and discourse studies. Each type of translation work, either oral or written, has its own specific requirements for the translator and the final result of his work - translation. A description of both types of translation cannot suffice without taking into account pragmatics, psycholinguistics, and the pragmatic scope of each text. A more important final result is the right linguistic expression in compliance with the grammatical, semantic, and stylistic rules of the target language. Special attention should be paid to extralinguistic factors - certain communicative situations that create special conditions for interpreting, including the place, time, recipients, and environment (interfering noise). The article describes different types of interpreting and draws the reader’s attention to the controversial question of the interpreter’s natural ability and the possibility of achieving excellence in interpreting through the intensive practising of skills simultaneously with a profound knowledge of certain languages and the translator or interpreter’s general educational development.
Translation usually gives the translator more time for focusing and considering the choice of the necessary lexico-grammatical and stylistic elements for a certain text. Interpretation requires an immediate reaction from the interpreter, who is in a constant state of stress and works under pressure. The translator of a written text is not only the person who renders the original text, but he is also the creator of a new written version of the text that can be read and, discussed, with its own mistakes in it. Interpreting is much more neutral and invisible to the addressee; the main thing here is the pragmatic transfer of the original information.
For the research the first-hand experience of teaching students in a class of translating and interpreting, with the presentation of examples in Czech and Ukrainian, is used.
The author comes to the conclusion that common features of interpretation and translation include the need for high language competence and the translator’s general erudition (excellent language skills, knowledge of features of the cultural background, a functional approach to linguistic means, and a developed aesthetic and cultural perception). But, considering that the requirements for performers of translation and interpretation are different, even in the scientific literature the assertion whether the professional specialist exists at all and can be a true professional in both translating and interpreting remains debatable.
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A case of mobile apps in the Lithuanian and English language pair
Gilvilė Stankevičiūtė, Ramunė Kasperavičienė and Jolita Horbačauskienė
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