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writing is known in technical linguistic vocabulary under the sobriquet of Modern Standard Arabic. However, users considered this standard language as directly stemming from the holy language of the Quran, which is accorded as the highest normative authority. It is usually (Western) linguists who classify the Classical Arabic of this holy book and Modern Standard Arabic as separate varieties or languages. The latter emerged in the course of the employment of the former seventh-century language for the sake of governance, literature, science, and technology in the
texts, or those who discuss and comment on the texts ( Wodak 2008 ; Orgoňová & Bohunická 2016 ).
Thanks to advances in information technology, we live in an era of unlimited opportunities for both direct and indirect global communication transcending all spatial and, in the widest sense of the word, cultural distances. The almost unlimited opportunities for direct or indirect intercultural dialog by presenting and exchanging opinions with immediate as well as open-ended feedback through various discussion forums, chats, unofficial subjective comments to official or
Terrorism is designed, as it has always been, to have profound psychological repercussions on a target audience and to undermine confidence in government and leadership. Nevertheless, after the 9/11 attacks, it is possible to claim that terrorism has changed and the European Union’s response, along with the world one, has also changed. By means of discursive analysis, this paper aims at exploring the complexity of the new threats that terrorism poses to the globalised world by combining 21st century technologies with the most extreme reading and vision of the clash of civilisation. The analysis will then proceed with an assessment of the change of approach that has guided EU action in the aftermath of 9/11 and with a critical examination of the issue of global actorness.
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