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Works Cited Anderson, Lorin W., et al. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives . Longman, 2001. Bezemer, Jeff, and Gunther Kress. Multimodality, Learning and Communication . Routledge, 2016. Bloom, Benjamin. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals – Handbook 1 Cognitive Domain . Longman, 1956. Bower, Matt. “Deriving a Typology of Web 2.0 Learning Technologies.” British Journal of Educational Technology , vol. 47, no. 4, 2016, pp. 763-77. Buckingham, David

References Anderson, Terry (2008). Theory and Practice of Online Learning . Canada: Athabasca University Press. Ally, Mohamed, Patrick Fahy (2002). Using students’ learning styles to provide support in distance education. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning . Madison. Bates, Tony (2005). Technology, E-learning and Distance Education . London: Routlege. Boling, Erica, Mary Hough, Hindi Krinsky, Hafiz Saleem, Maggie Stevens (2012). Cutting the distance in distance education: Perspectives on what promotes online

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References Aljaafreh, Ali, James P. Lantolf (1994). Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the zone of proximal development. The Modern Language Journal 78: 465–483. Chapelle, Carol A. (2003). English Language Learning and Technology: Lectures on Applied Linguistics in the Age of Information and Communication Technology . Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. Chapelle, Carol A., Dan Douglas (2006). Assessing Language Through Computer Technology . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Birjandi, Parviz, Saman Ebadi (2012). Microgenesis in

in ExELL

References Arndt, Henriette L., Robert Woore (2018). Vocabulary learning from watching YouTube videos and reading blog posts. Language Learning and Technology 22.3: 124–142. CEDEFOP (2014). Terminology of European Education and Training Policy: A Selection of 130 Terms. (2nd ed.). Luxembourg: Publications Office. Council of Europe (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment . Strasbourg: Language Policy Unit. Ellis, Nick C. (2006). Cognitive perspectives on SLA: The associative-cognitive CREED. AILA Review

in ExELL

presented at the AAAL Conference, Vancouver, BC. Chomsky, Noam (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Press. Cohen, Jacob, Patricia Cohen, Stephen G. West, Leona S. Aiken (2004). Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences . (3rd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Corder, Stephen P. (1967). The significance of learners' errors. IRAL 5: 161–170. DeKeyser, Robert (1997) Beyond explicit rule learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19: 195–221. Dubravac

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Early Modern English. Watts, Richard, Peter Trudgill, eds. Alternative Histories of English . London: Routledge, 210–239. Kilgarriff, Adam, Pavel Rychlý, Pavel Smrž, David Tugwell. (2004) ITRI-04-08 the sketch engine. Information Technology , 2004. Retreived from https://www.sketchengine.eu/wpcontent/uploads/The_Sketch_Engine_2004.pdf . Lehmann, Christian (2002). Thoughts on Grammaticalization. Erfurt: Arbeitspapiere des Seminars für Sprachwissenshaft der Universität Erfurt. https://www.christianlehmann.eu/publ/ASSidUE09.pdf Lutzky, Ursula (2012). Discourse

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Abstract

This paper draws together a number of best practices identified over the course of the national ReCLes.pt CLIL project. Developed by Portuguese Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) associated in the Network Association of Language Centers in Higher Education in Portugal (ReCLes.pt, http://recles.pt), the project promoted pilot teacher training courses in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). Ultimately, 33 CLIL course modules were implemented in six participating HEIs, impacting over 600 students. Over the course of three years to reach this initial long-term goal, the ReCLes.pt CLIL researchers collaborated to review the literature and work through the resulting debates. The resulting overarching course of action is reflected in the teaching manual, written collaboratively and published with the related data-gathering tools for the study partially funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. The best practices focused on in this article include promoting the perspective of FL learners as FL users, the practical implementation of communities of practice and learning, and the development of CLIL modules to include scaffolding and ICT.

Abstract

Research-oriented programs related to pre-service teacher education are practically non-existent in many countries. Since in Portugal we now have a stable legal system for initial teacher training, how can we help these countries to respond to their teacher training needs and accomplish these same standards? How can we create an international program at MA level that could serve such an objective? What are the research priorities for teachers in primary and secondary education? I will claim for a new general research policy using small-scale research projects in foreign language teaching (FLT), which illustrated a turning point in advanced research in foreign languages teacher training. Presently, researchers no longer narrow their inquiries into linguistic questions or school and student-centered actions. Instead, they focus on a range of issues such as teacher-centered actions, beliefs and policies, and aspects of FLT such as literacy education, special educational needs or methods for teaching gifted students. Despite a lack of funding at all levels, many research projects in teacher education have been undertaken, and new areas have been explored, such as didactic transposition, literary and information literacies, intercultural learning, corpora in FLT, new information and communication technologies in FLT, interlingual inferencing, national standards for foreign language education, FLT for specific purposes, digital narratives in education, CLIL, assessment, and language learning behaviors. This small sample of the many areas covered proves that advanced research in teacher education can also be very useful to promote the growing interest in further internationalization in other sciences (beyond human and social areas) traditionally linked to politics, business and industry (computing, chemistry, biology, medicine, etc.), something that can only be attained by focusing on multilingualism, multi-literacy and lifelong learning.

Abstract

This article describes the didactic principles underlying the creation of a ready-made fifteen lesson plan package for primary CLIL (for Maths, Geography and Science) for pupils aged 5 to 12, developed through the collaboration of an international group of English and primary teachers, teacher educators, researchers and teaching materials developers across four European countries in the framework of the CLIL for Children (C4C) project (2015-2018) on educating teachers for CLIL teaching environments. These principles are presented in the framework of a brief state-of-the art discussion on the lack of ready-made teaching materials for CLIL, their importance for teacher development and quality teaching and learning in CLIL classrooms, and criteria they should conform to. The article proceeds by summarising the findings of two C4C surveys, one on best CLIL teaching practice through national reports of four European countries (Italy, Portugal, Poland and Romania) and the other on Open Educational Resources (OER) available for CLIL Maths, Science and Geography, as well as by drawing on C4C Guidelines. The article then demonstrates these principles in practice through a module of a three lesson plan sequence for CLIL Science on the topic “The World of Plants” by showing how language (vocabulary or content-specific terminology and language functions), specific communication skills, content and culture are integrated and developed through a child-centred, holistic (Brooks and Brooks), constructivist approach. Digital technologies are included as everyday learning processes for access to knowledge and playfulness in learning. Methodologies for active, experiential, discovery, problem solving and cooperative learning are foregrounded. The article further highlights how teacher cooperation and teacher identities (English and primary education teachers) as individuals with multilingual repertoires, expectations, and expertise are crucial for producing quality CLIL materials and resources.

Press. Louw, Bill. 1993. Irony in the text or insincerity in the writer? The diagnostic potential of semantic prosodies. In M. Baker, G. Francis, E. Tognini-Bonelli (eds.). Text and technology, 157-176. Philadelphia/Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Mair, Christian. 2006. Twentieth-century English: History, variation, and standardization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reppen, Randi. 2010. Using corpora in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rohdenburg, Günter and Julia Schlüter (eds.). 2010. One language, two grammars? Differences between