Post-Soviet Belarus: The Transformation of National Identity
The paper deals with the formation of a new national identity in Belarus under conditions of post-Soviet transformation. Under the term of "national identity" the author means the identity of the population of the Republic of Belarus that will be adequate to its status of a newly independent state acquired after 1991. Special attention is paid to the existing major research approaches to the problem of constructing this national identity. According to the author's view, both major approaches are inadequate; the author puts forward a new (third) approach that goes beyond discussions on language and national culture, and corresponds to the concept of plurality of identities. The author describes some paradoxes of national identity based on the opposition of "nation" and "people". These correspond to the Western model of the "creation of modern nations", which is not fully applicable to post-Soviet Belarus. All attempts to apply this model to contemporary Belarus lead scholars to several "cultural paradoxes" that can, however, be explained within a new approach.
Starosta P. (1995), Poza metropolią. Wiejskie i małomiasteczkowe zbiorowości lokalne a wzory porządku makrospołecznego [ Outside of the metropolis. Rural and small-town local community and the models of macrosocial order ], Łódź.
Ziółkowski M. (1997), ‘Interesy i wartości społeczeństwa polskiego w okresie systemowej transformacji’ [‘Interests and values of Polish society during systemictransformation’], in: Forum Oświatowe 1997, vol. 1–2, special issue ‘Polacy na progu…’ [‘Poles on the threshold’].
The systemic transformation in Poland, aimed, among others, at activating market mechanisms, has resulted in a change in the ownership structure and privatization that has accompanied it. Privatization processes are commonly considered to be principally motivated by an increase in efficiency of the economy based on the assumption that efficiency of private enterprises is higher than that of public sector ones. The main aim of the article is to verify the above hypothesis. An analysis of efficiency of public and private sector enterprises, taking into account their organizational and legal forms, made on the basis of Central Statistical Office information, confirmed the above hypothesis. Private enterprises use their assets better and take advantage of the financial leverage mechanism to a larger extent. It should be emphasized, however, that private enterprises are more adversely affected by economic fluctuations caused by the crisis.
Bagdziński, S.L., Maik, W. and Potoczek, A., editors, 1995: Polityka rozwoju regionalnego i lokalnego w okresie transformacji systemowej (Regional and local development policy in the age of systemictransformation - in Polish), Toruń: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika.
Chojnicki, Z. and Czyż, T., 2005: Rozwój społecznogospodarczy w ujęciu regionalnym (Socio-economic development in a regional approach - in Polish). In: Biuletyn KPZK PAN 219, pp. 8-23.
Chojnicki, Z., 1999: Podstawy metodologiczne i
area around the URMP experienced a series of difficulties. Moreover, the studies were designed to classify the urban areas neighbouring the URMP based on the features of spatial and functional transformation identified in these areas.
Study area and methodology
Łódź is the third largest city in Poland according to number of inhabitants (698,688 in 2016). At the same time, it is one of the fastest shrinking cities in Europe due to the economic crisis in the 1990s following the systemictransformation in Poland and in other CEE countries. The reasons for the