area around the URMP experienced a series of difficulties. Moreover, the studies were designed to classify the urban areas neighbouring the URMP based on the features of spatial and functional transformation identified in these areas.
Study area and methodology
Łódź is the third largest city in Poland according to number of inhabitants (698,688 in 2016). At the same time, it is one of the fastest shrinking cities in Europe due to the economic crisis in the 1990s following the systemictransformation in Poland and in other CEE countries. The reasons for the