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The systemic transformation of post-socialist countries from central planning to a market economy was a very complex and unprecedented undertaking. In this study we critically examine three influential classifications proposed by Coates [2000, 2006], Hall and Soskice [2001], and Amable [2003], within the “comparative capitalisms” literature stream, and argue that they are unsuitable for evaluating the progress made by transition economies since 1990. The basis of the criticism stems from timing: these theoretical frameworks were developed primarily to evaluate the growth of advanced and mature capitalist countries. Thus, they fail to capture the unique features of transition economies and the complexity of the transformation process that led to the emergence of different market-based systems. From this vantage point, we discusses and also critique a recent classification developed by Myant and Drahokoupil [2011, 2015], who distinguish five ideal models (i.e. “varieties of capitalism”) that have evolved within transition countries. In our conclusion we point to areas within the field that may be explored by future research.

1 Introduction The post-socialist transformation in Myanmar/ Burma began, as in Central and Eastern Europe, in the late 1980s. Nevertheless, the first stage of reforms (1988–2011) did not result in the creation of an open free market economy. In addition, there was no political liberalisation. The dynamics of changes – political and economic – increased in 2011. In the period 2011–2015, there was a significant acceleration of systemic transformation. In November 2015, partly free parliamentary elections were held and one of the leaders of the democratic


Beta parameter is one of the commonly used measures of the investment risk of individual stock or portfolio. It plays a crucial role in modern portfolio theory particularly in management of financial investment portfolios. In the field of beta parameter, numerous studies have been conducted, especially beta properties stability in the context of the stock market cycle phases, measuring frequency of rate of return, and the length of a sample period. There are much fewer studies concerned beta parameter in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe which have undergone systemic transformation at the end of the previous century. From a scientific point of view, it is interesting to know how the beta parameter behaves in these countries.

The main goal of this article is to examine the beta parameter stability over bull and bear market conditions on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The paper presents an analysis of beta stability for 134 stocks of the largest companies listed at the WSE during years 2005–2013. To verify statistically the hypothesis of beta parameter stability, we used monthly returns in the Sharpe’s single-index model. In the first part of the article, we present a brief review of the literature and methodology of the study, while in the second part, the obtained results and conclusions are shown.


This article focuses on Eurasianism as an ideological trend with a political appeal beyond the post-Soviet space. It demonstrates that the roles envisioned for the ‘Trojan horses’ of Eurasianism among the far right in Central/Southeast Europe and for Eurasianism’s sympathizers in Western Europe bear a qualitative difference. In the former case, the emphasis is on systemic transformation whereas, in the latter case, on a gradualist strategy.

Instability: Evidence from African Countries. The American Economist . 34(2), pp.55-59 TUBILEWICZ, C. (2007). Europe in Taiwan's Post-Cold War Foreign Relations. Diplomacy & Statecraft . 18, pp.415-443. DOI: 10.1080/09592290701322606. WEF (2012). The Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013 . Geneva: World Economic Forum. WESTERNHAGEN, N. (2002). Systemic Transformation, Trade and Economic Growth: Developments, Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Results . Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag.


The systemic transformation in Poland, aimed, among others, at activating market mechanisms, has resulted in a change in the ownership structure and privatization that has accompanied it. Privatization processes are commonly considered to be principally motivated by an increase in efficiency of the economy based on the assumption that efficiency of private enterprises is higher than that of public sector ones. The main aim of the article is to verify the above hypothesis. An analysis of efficiency of public and private sector enterprises, taking into account their organizational and legal forms, made on the basis of Central Statistical Office information, confirmed the above hypothesis. Private enterprises use their assets better and take advantage of the financial leverage mechanism to a larger extent. It should be emphasized, however, that private enterprises are more adversely affected by economic fluctuations caused by the crisis.


The article is a synthetic outlook at Konrad Adenauer’s life, activity and the legacy of that politician, described in a tendentious way in the past period, and nowadays – after a temporary increase in the interest during the first years of systemic transformation – deserving a closer examination. In the initial part of the article, some integration concepts of past centuries have been outlined. Then, in a biographical sketch, Adenauer’s private and public activities were characterized, falling into diverse political periods, ranging from imperial Germany, to the post-war formation of the foundations of a reborn democratic state. His participation in these events is outlined. The main achievements of Adenauer during almost 30 years of work in the Cologne municipality are pointed out and the repressions he suffered during the Nazi regime and his participation in the post-war reconstruction of Germany were discussed: long-term leadership in the CDU and the 14-year period of government as the first chancellor of democratic post-war Germany. It was pointed out that the political line he designated, the active presence of Germany in the uniting Europe, proved to be very stable and continued by his successive successors.


The aim of this paper was to analyze reasons and a range of changes in agricultural land areas due to allocation them for non-agricultural purposes across a period of 1990-2015 in Poland. This phenomena has not been sufficiently considered till now. Lack of this knowledge does not allow effective reduction of the decline of agricultural land by appropriate legislation and administrative action, especially on urban areas. In Poland, a significant proportion of agricultural land is allocated annually for non-agricultural purposes, which is connected with their permanent withdrawal from agricultural production. The permanent decline in the area of agricultural land in the country has been observed since the beginning of the systemic transformation. The dominant direction of the land withdrawal for non-agricultural purposes is their allocation to housing construction. In 1995 the Law on the protection of agricultural and forest land was introduced. This law includes strengthened economic tools for the protection of agricultural land in the form of mandatory charges for the withdrawal of agricultural land showing the best soil quality. This has led to a significant reduction in agricultural land use withdrawal. However, accelerated regional development following the accession of Poland to the EU and, then, the need to expand technical infrastructure resulted in several amendments to the 1995 Act, significantly weakened the protection of agricultural and forest land. It seems that the land as the unrepeatable good should be strictly covered by more respect and protection than ever before, especially in areas with the highest production value.

and Soskice [2001] . For more details, see Rapacki et al. [2016]. to the former socialist countries undergoing systemic transformation from a centrally planned economy toward a market-driven economy, with an end to explain and better understand the nature of the emerging postcommunist capitalism there. Simultaneously, based on the original methodology, some attempts have also been made to take account of institutional peculiarities inherent in the postcommunist transition and to extend the existing standard classifications with derivative categories that would

I. Przegląd Geograficzny, 82(4): 549–571. TAYLOR, Z., CIECHAŃSKI, A. (2011): Niedawne przekształcenia organizacyjno-własnościowe przedsiębiorstw transportu kolejowego w Polsce – część II. Przegląd Geograficzny, 83(2): 205–231. TAYLOR, Z., CIECHAŃSKI, A. (2017): Deregulacja i przekształcenia własnościowe przedsiębiorstw transportu lądowego w Polsce na tle polityki spójności UE. Prace Geograficzne Nr. 257.Warszawa, PAN. TAYLOR, Z., CIECHAŃSKI, A. (2018): Systemic transformation and changes in surface transport companies in Poland: A synthesis twenty years on