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konsumenckich [Consumer agreement law], C. H. Beck, Warsaw. Małysa-Kaleta A. (2002), Konsumpcja w kształtowaniu życia Polaków [Consumption in shaping Poles’ lives], [in:] Kędzior Z., Kieżel E. (ed.), “Konsumpcja i rynek w warunkach zmian systemowych” [Consumption and market in the period of systemic transformation], Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, Warsaw, p. 22-23 Niepokulczycka M. (1998), Polityka konsumencka w Polsce - aspekt integracyjny [Consumer policy in Poland - aspect of integration], [in:] Gutkowska K., Ozimek I. (ed.), “Socjoekonomiczna i prawna sytuacja


The systemic transformation of post-socialist countries from central planning to a market economy was a very complex and unprecedented undertaking. In this study we critically examine three influential classifications proposed by Coates [2000, 2006], Hall and Soskice [2001], and Amable [2003], within the “comparative capitalisms” literature stream, and argue that they are unsuitable for evaluating the progress made by transition economies since 1990. The basis of the criticism stems from timing: these theoretical frameworks were developed primarily to evaluate the growth of advanced and mature capitalist countries. Thus, they fail to capture the unique features of transition economies and the complexity of the transformation process that led to the emergence of different market-based systems. From this vantage point, we discusses and also critique a recent classification developed by Myant and Drahokoupil [2011, 2015], who distinguish five ideal models (i.e. “varieties of capitalism”) that have evolved within transition countries. In our conclusion we point to areas within the field that may be explored by future research.

Post-Soviet Belarus: The Transformation of National Identity

The paper deals with the formation of a new national identity in Belarus under conditions of post-Soviet transformation. Under the term of "national identity" the author means the identity of the population of the Republic of Belarus that will be adequate to its status of a newly independent state acquired after 1991. Special attention is paid to the existing major research approaches to the problem of constructing this national identity. According to the author's view, both major approaches are inadequate; the author puts forward a new (third) approach that goes beyond discussions on language and national culture, and corresponds to the concept of plurality of identities. The author describes some paradoxes of national identity based on the opposition of "nation" and "people". These correspond to the Western model of the "creation of modern nations", which is not fully applicable to post-Soviet Belarus. All attempts to apply this model to contemporary Belarus lead scholars to several "cultural paradoxes" that can, however, be explained within a new approach.

1 Introduction The post-socialist transformation in Myanmar/ Burma began, as in Central and Eastern Europe, in the late 1980s. Nevertheless, the first stage of reforms (1988–2011) did not result in the creation of an open free market economy. In addition, there was no political liberalisation. The dynamics of changes – political and economic – increased in 2011. In the period 2011–2015, there was a significant acceleration of systemic transformation. In November 2015, partly free parliamentary elections were held and one of the leaders of the democratic


This article focuses on Eurasianism as an ideological trend with a political appeal beyond the post-Soviet space. It demonstrates that the roles envisioned for the ‘Trojan horses’ of Eurasianism among the far right in Central/Southeast Europe and for Eurasianism’s sympathizers in Western Europe bear a qualitative difference. In the former case, the emphasis is on systemic transformation whereas, in the latter case, on a gradualist strategy.


The history of pirate, illegal television stations in Poland is presented here against the broader background of systemic transformations (both political and legal). According to the author of the article, it was an inevitable phenomenon, closely linked to the creation of the foundations of a democratic, lawful state with free-market economy. They were a factor which enforced acceleration of political change, legislative works and affected the change of the programming offer. Although pirate television stations were a short-lived phenomenon, they had huge impact on the later development of electronic media in Poland.

Landed Property of Churches and Denominational Associations in Poland

Historical factors are presented that have determined landed property belonging to churches and denominational associations in Poland. The article then moves to post-war times to discuss the size and structure of church property resources in 1950, before its appropriation by the State in 1952, and after its restoration to the ecclesiastical owners following the systemic transformation of 1989. The form and ways of recovery of church property are discussed, as well as its present size, structure and distribution.


We need a brief assessment of the international security environment in order to have a more realistic picture of the world we live in, having the perspective of threats, risks and vulnerabilities. The current and future security environment is characterized, among other things, by its complexity of actors, dynamism of threats as a result of the rethinking of the political-military postures of some states with military potential ore emerging states and non-state actors. In the foreseeable future, the security environment will continue to be influenced by multiple challenges, risks and threats, caused by the globalization phenomenon and political, economic, military and technological interdependencies which can provoke strategic surprises. The European area is in a continuous process of transformation with strategic implications. The systemic transformation will affect the European states and their adjacent regions visibly but distinctly, but the impact on European and Romanian security will be differentiated in the long run.


The systemic transformation in Poland, aimed, among others, at activating market mechanisms, has resulted in a change in the ownership structure and privatization that has accompanied it. Privatization processes are commonly considered to be principally motivated by an increase in efficiency of the economy based on the assumption that efficiency of private enterprises is higher than that of public sector ones. The main aim of the article is to verify the above hypothesis. An analysis of efficiency of public and private sector enterprises, taking into account their organizational and legal forms, made on the basis of Central Statistical Office information, confirmed the above hypothesis. Private enterprises use their assets better and take advantage of the financial leverage mechanism to a larger extent. It should be emphasized, however, that private enterprises are more adversely affected by economic fluctuations caused by the crisis.


The aim of this paper was to analyze reasons and a range of changes in agricultural land areas due to allocation them for non-agricultural purposes across a period of 1990-2015 in Poland. This phenomena has not been sufficiently considered till now. Lack of this knowledge does not allow effective reduction of the decline of agricultural land by appropriate legislation and administrative action, especially on urban areas. In Poland, a significant proportion of agricultural land is allocated annually for non-agricultural purposes, which is connected with their permanent withdrawal from agricultural production. The permanent decline in the area of agricultural land in the country has been observed since the beginning of the systemic transformation. The dominant direction of the land withdrawal for non-agricultural purposes is their allocation to housing construction. In 1995 the Law on the protection of agricultural and forest land was introduced. This law includes strengthened economic tools for the protection of agricultural land in the form of mandatory charges for the withdrawal of agricultural land showing the best soil quality. This has led to a significant reduction in agricultural land use withdrawal. However, accelerated regional development following the accession of Poland to the EU and, then, the need to expand technical infrastructure resulted in several amendments to the 1995 Act, significantly weakened the protection of agricultural and forest land. It seems that the land as the unrepeatable good should be strictly covered by more respect and protection than ever before, especially in areas with the highest production value.