Witold Kołłątaj, Magda Sowa, Piotr Książek, Anna Jurek and Piotr Dreher
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Introduction. The objective of this paper was to provide an overview of the life and work of a Polish artist and painter, August Rozental, who lived and worked in Bulgaria in the late 19th and early 20th century and is completely unknown in Poland. Documentation of his work may be of interest to both art historians and Polish travel agencies, the latter for marketing purposes. Material and methods. In searching for reliable information, the focus remained on historical, icono-graphic and epigraphic sources. Archival and museum collections were consulted, as were academic libraries, periodicals and internet sites (Polish, Bulgarian, Serbian and Russian). The information thus obtained was verified on the basis of three interviews with museology specialists. Results. The information was presented in terms of a description of the location and marketing product, to address the needs of cultural tourism. Consequently, the descriptions focus primarily on the artist's surviving works and their locations in monasteries in and around Sofia. Along the way, interesting information was discovered regarding the accomplishments of his brother Juliusz, a poet, and their father August, a doctor who years earlier was exiled to Siberia along with his family. Original, newly discovered documents containing personal information about August Rozental (the painter) are also presented. Conclusion. The research confirms his Polish origins and documents the current locations of his most interesting works of art. This makes them easily accessible to both specialists and tourists interested in the subject.
Increased life expectancy in China implies that adults increasingly survive long enough to see their grandchildren reach adulthood and take on elevated importance—even as smaller family size reduces the number of children and grandchildren available. This article examined the prevalence with which older adults received support and care from grandchildren and the family conditions under which the likelihood of this assistance is enhanced. The data for our analysis derived from the 2014 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Aging Social Survey, limited to 13.4% of respondents (n = 1,551) who reported requiring personal assistance to perform daily activities. Logistic regression revealed that grandparents were more likely to receive assistance from grandchildren when they had no son available or had daughters who did not provide assistance. Results were consistent across urban and rural regions. These findings support the compensatory or substitution role of grandchildren as sources of support and care for their grandparents within a gendered family system. Implications for policies and services serving older people in China are discussed.
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