Xerothermic grasslands are veritable botanical gems of the Ponidzie region, located in the upland zone of Poland. Most of these exceptional plant communities have been formed as a result of deforestation, in habitats characterized by specific climatic, hydrological and soil conditions. The result of the natural reserve protection of the xerothermic grassland, however, is opposite to the desired result. The survival of the xerothermic grassland depends on the change in the approach to their protection. Xerothermic grasslands are an excellent example of the difficulties with maintaining very valuable, but semi-natural and anthropogenic communities, related to a large extent to traditional, extensive forms of agriculture. Similar problems occur in the case of gladiolus meadows in lower subalpine forest zones or of once-mown molinion meadows in river valleys.
survived many wide changes in environmental conditions, yet still ocean acidification is singled out by alarmists as the great threat to the reef.
Geological History of Limestone and Carbon Dioxide
Marine life depends on CO 2 , and some plants and animals fix it as limestone, which is not generally re-dissolved. Marine life, including that part that fixes CO 2 as the carbonate in limestones such as coral reefs, evolved on an Earth with CO 2 levels many times higher than those of today, as reported by Berner and Kothavala (2001) . It may be true to say that today
Ewa Skowronek, Teresa Brzezińska-Wójcik and Andrzej Stasiak
al. 2006 ).
Despite the region’s turbulent history, many elements of the material and non-material cultural heritage have survived. The largest group of surviving elements are the buildings of various purposes: dwelling premises (villas, manor houses, palaces and village homesteads), economic, and industrial (factory buildings, craftsmen’s workshops, windmills, granaries), ritual (churches, chapels, monasteries, synagogues) and public buildings (schools, hospitals, offices), as well as so called small architecture (e.g. roadside shrines, figures, and roadside
Barbara Maćkiewicz, Raúl Puente Asuero and Krystyna Pawlak
happened so because the centre is a place visited by a considerable number of people both residents and tourists; and the public space of Liberty Square can in no way be controlled or taken care of by neighbours. As a result there are ample opportunities for theft. Thieves dug up seedlings of not only the more expensive species but also of those cheap ones, for instance, thujas and pansies. The aim of the project (i.e. bringing back the green heart to the city and making space for meeting, creating and cooperating) was achieved. However, the seedlings survived only a
aggravated by generally a bad economic condition of all industrial plants located in the city. Initial plans to hire miners in other branches turned out impossible to implement. Many other industrial plants did not survive the transformation, including the porcelain factory “Książ”, built in the 1980s, which failed in 2004. Another porcelain factory “Wałbrzych” was eventually shut down in 2012.
Table 1 Number of the unemployed and job offers in the Labour Office in the years 1990–2015 (data as at the end of December).
also manifested in the opinion that agriculture will not survive, so many households have abandoned this activity, while the new-age labour force has started emigrating abroad to ensure existence and survival. Such a situation has caused a stagnation in agriculture, followed by other phenomena such as “social decline”, land and landscape degradation.
The concern about this irreplaceable and limited resource obliges us to calculate the fund of these areas in proportion to the number of the population, the opportunities to preserve these areas of strategic importance
being three marble plates called Epitaffi ( Bartoli 1679 ). Only two of them survived to the present time. The richness of the geothermal Phlegraean Fields was used at the end of the 19th century to build eleven facilities (according to the available sources of information), and some of them, apart from thermal baths, were accompanied by luxurious and wide-extending parks and gardens. Their existence is documented in the Historical Archives in Naples (mainly journal articles) and photos, postcards and archival documents collected by a descendant of the family who is
resilience causes difficulties of interpretation. Usually, however, it is tied with a skill or process of adjusting to changing conditions, and thus with adaptation, but also with the ability to survive despite adverse conditions and with a quick return to optimal functioning, or a kind of resistance to crisis situations ( Curtis, Cicchetti 2004 ). Yet, new approaches to this problem are continuously appearing in the literature ( Barnett 2001 ; Foster 2007 ; Martin et al. 2016 ).
With respect to the city, the concept of resilience develops in many different directions
The state border is a barrier that most people perceive and use to construct their identity vis-à-vis the neighbouring country ( van Houtum 1999 ). However, boundaries and their depiction on maps can bear multiple forms: most of the time, we provide other administrative–political boundaries where states are divided into smaller units, such as regions, provinces, counties or districts. Some of these borders have survived since their creation to the present, others serve as memory (see Jańczak’s concept of the phantom border, 2014). In our article
external observers, encounter critics, imitators and followers. They need to display a dose of leadership, be persistent and active to leave a mark in the artistic field or at least to survive in it, both in economic and in artistic terms ( Menger 1999 ; Swedberg 2006 ; Blaug, Towse 2011 ). On the one hand, there is an insufficient amount of research on entrepreneurial aspects of artistic work of potential use to non-artistic entrepreneurs ( Scherdin, Zander 2011 ). On the other hand, the need for gaining entrepreneurial knowledge and practical skills has been