In 2007 and 2008 research on the impact of temperature, ranging from 14 to 39°C on the survivability of an adult Anoplotrupes stercorosus intoxicated by insecticide preparations from the group of phosphoorganic insecticides (diazinon), carbamate (pirimicarb), quinazolines (fenazaquin), oxadiazine (indoxacarb), benzoyl urea insecticides (teflubenzuron), neonicotinoids (acetamiprid) and pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin) was carried out. The results obtained indicate that all preparations used in tests had a positive temperature coefficient.
Tatiana Mančušková, Alžbeta Medved’ová and Ľubomír Valík
A strain Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Howaru Dophilus is a probiotic bacterium available in dairy products and dietary supplements since 1970s. Its positive health effects have been proved by many studies. This work deals with the examination of NCFM strain’s viability during its storage at stable and unstable temperature in MRS broth and ultra-pasteurized milk. In nutritionally rich environment, Lb. acidophilus NCFM was able to survive and to metabolize the media. The relevant decrease of viable cells was observed in MRS broth about 30 days after inoculation, and in milk after 21 to 45 days at both stable and unstable temperatures, respectively. The average rate of decrease of viable cells was approximately two to three times higher in experiments at unstable temperature (GrMRS,unst = −0.149 log CFU.ml−1.d−1 in MRS broth, Grmilk,unst = 0.030 log CFU.ml−1.d−1 in milk) compared with that at stable temperature (GrMRS,st = −0.079 log CFU.ml−1.d−1 in MRS broth, Grmilk,st = 0.009 log CFU.ml−1.d−1 in milk). In the MRS broth exhausted by overnight cultivation of NCFM strain the decrease of viable cells started practically immediately (Grovernigh,unst = −0.137 log CFU.ml−1.d−1). Maintenance of the culture in milk at stable temperature was proved to be the most appropriate form of its storage.
Sinoyolo Nondlazi, Nosiphiwe Ngqwala, Bongumusa M. Zuma, Paul K. Mensah and Roman Tandlich
Acute toxicity of raw and treated greywater towards Daphnia magna was assessed in this study. Treatment was performed with exposure of greywater to the fly-lime mixture After 48 h of exposure, 100 % mortality of D. magna was recorded when testing the following volumetric fractions of the raw greywater streams in the tested liquid medium (%; v/v): 10 % for kitchen greywater, 5 – 10 % for bathroom greywater and 1.25 – 10 % for laundry greywater. After greywater treatment with the fly-ash-lime mixture with pH adjustment to 7.0, 80 % of neonates of D. magna survived after exposure to treated laundry greywater in all dilutions at 48 h. At the same time, 100 % of neonates survived exposure to treated bathroom and kitchen greywater at all volumetric fractions. Therefore greywater had acute toxicity to D. magna, i.e. greywater treatment was required before its discharge or reuse. Values of the Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the chemical components of the raw greywater and treated greywater and the survival of D. magna indicated a lack of statistically significant correlation at 5 % level of significance (p-value > 0.05 in all cases), i.e. the survival of D. magna was independent of the concentration of chemical constituents in greywater samples tested. Further studies will have to be conducted on the chronic toxicity of the greywater effluent after treatment with the fly-lime mixture. Experiments from this study will have to be re-run for the fully scaled-up version of the fly-lime mixture-based greywater treatment systems.
Laxmi Goparaju, P. Rama Chandra Prasad and Firoz Ahmad
Forests, the backbone of biogeochemical cycles and life supporting systems, are under severe pressure due to varied anthropogenic activities. Mining activities are one among the major reasons for forest destruction questioning the survivability and sustainability of flora and fauna existing in that area. Thus, monitoring and managing the impact of mining activities on natural resources at regular intervals is necessary to check the status of their depleted conditions, and to take up restoration and conservative measurements. Geospatial technology provides means to identify the impact of different mining operations on forest ecosystems and helps in proposing initiatives for safeguarding the forest environment. In this context, the present study highlights the problems related to mining in forest ecosystems and elucidates how geospatial technology can be employed at various stages of mining activities to achieve a sustainable forest ecosystem. The study collates information from various sources and highlights the role of geospatial technology in mining industries and reclamation process.
Vasilije Isajev, Vera Lavadinović, Aleksandar Lučić and Ljubinko Rakonjac
Isajev V., Lavadinović V., Lučić A., Rakonjac L.J.: Serbian spruce (Picea omorca /Panc./ Purkyne) variability in the artificial populations in Serbia. Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 3, p. 277-282, 2013. A great part of the genetic variation and the potentials of Serbian spruce natural populations have been incorporated in several plantations in the Western Serbia at the site Quercetum fraineto-cerris s.l., Salicetum fragillis s.l and Pinetum nigre s.l. and in other similar occurrences In this way, it becomes much more available for the research and future utilization. The intensive research of the plantations started by the classification of trees into phenogroups which were considered to be significant for forestry and horticulture. The differences between flowering years, plantations and individual trees in the regularity and abundance of micro- and macro-strobiles are major indicators f genetic variability in the reproductive cycle of Serbian spruce. The interaction of environmental characteristics and genotypes of extreme and average trees illustrate the reproductive ability of Serbian spruce on different sites and indicates that this species achieves the coenological and not the ecological optimum at its natural sites. Application of genetic/selection programmes can lead to the production of planting stock of desired and defined properties, which could survive the stress environmental factors, thanks to its morphological and physiological properties.
The European beech Fagus sylvatica L. ssp. sylvatica L. is exclusively found in Europe. The beech survived the ice age in small refuges in the south and south-east Europe and went on to colonise large parts of the continent. The post-ice age colonisation of the landscape by the beech took place parallel to the settlement of land by humans and the formation of a more complex society. For centuries much of the Carpathian mountain forests remained untouched (Fig. 1). Virgin forests constitute a natural heritage of global significance. In 2007, 10 protected areas with the Primeval Beech Forests of Carpathians (Slovakia, Ukraine) were added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. On 25 June 2011, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee added five of Germany’s beech forest protected areas to the World Heritage List. This extended the transboundary world natural heritage site ‘Primeval Beech Forest of the Carpathians’, located in the Slovak Republic and Ukraine, to include a German forest protected areas, and renamed it ‘Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Ancient Beech Forests of Germany’. This paper is aimed at the presentation of the outstanding universal value of the ecological processes in the Joint World Heritage Sites, short description of protected areas and principles of their integrated management plan. This paper also deals with problems in management plan realisation in practice. Ultimate goal is to achieve that management and socio-economic sustainable development practices are in harmony with primary objectives of World Heritage Site protection, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape stability, rational use of natural resources, ecotourism development and with potential of the landscape in largest possible extend.
The data concerning the effects of pesticides of different nature on the phytopathogenic bacteria was examined and summarized. Without extensive research on the mechanisms of interaction between pathogenic bacteria and pesticides in the literature review a similar message about microorganisms of soil and phyllosphere are included. The bacteria can be suppressed permanently by pesticides with a mechanism of action that universally affects biological processes in living systems. Long-term storage, ease of use and fast visible effect are the advantages of synthetic pesticides remedies. But chemical pollution, shifts in the balance of ecosystems, unpredictable effects of chemical pesticides on non-target objects are the drawbacks. Stimulation of resistance response in plants is unifying factor for all types of biopesticides. This is realized through localization of the pathogen during infection, blocking its further penetration, distribution and reproduction. The results of the study of effects of plant protection products on the phytopathogenic bacteria of main crops are described. Among all tested pesticides, thiocarbamate fungicides demonstrated significant inhibitory action on phytopathogens, but their effect may be neutralized by other constituents of multicomponent preparations. Triazole fungicides affect the causative agents of bacterioses of crops at a dose of more than 1% of the active substance in the nutrient medium. Insecticides and herbicides have little or no effect on phytopathogenic bacteria; however they can enhance morphological dissociations of some Pseudomonas strains, thereby increasing their ability to survive. The disadvantage of many biopesticides against phytopathogenic microorganisms is the difference between their efficacy in vitro and in vivo that is why the desired result is not achieved in field condition. In addition, biological pesticides often lose their activity causing the problem of constant search for new active antagonists. The fact that the sensitivity of phytopathogenic bacteria to pesticides is strain-dependent should be considered in practice, particularly, assessment of the antibacterial action of various preparations should not be limited to a single bacterial strain.
Wojciech Głuszewski, Bartłomiej Boruc, Hieronim Kubera and Dinara Abbasowa
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15. Głuszewski, W., Zagórski, Z. P., & Rajkiewicz, M. (2014). Protective effects in radiation modifi cation of elastomers. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 105, 36-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2014.06.024.
16. Ivanova, I. A., & Popova, D. Y. (2014). Pigmented yeasts survived 20 kGy gamma irradiation. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 20(Suppl. 1), 31-36.
Signe Žvagiņa, Zaiga Petriņa, Vizma Nikolajeva and Anita Lielpētere
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Waterloo, World Tourist, pp 183-208
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