Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo, Paweł Cięszczyk, Jakub Chycki, Marek Sawczuk and Wojciech Smółka
either deliver oxygen to cells or allow cells to survive oxygen deprivation are crucial in the conditions of physiological stress that is characteristic for the highest rate of oxygen uptake observed during intense exercise in power/strength athletes. Such pathways usually engage many factors that regulate the expression of hundreds of genes involved in angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, glucose transport, vasomotor control, erythropoiesis, and also many of which are implicated in either the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to cells, or controlling cellular utilization
Introduction. The objective of this paper was to provide an overview of the life and work of a Polish artist and painter, August Rozental, who lived and worked in Bulgaria in the late 19th and early 20th century and is completely unknown in Poland. Documentation of his work may be of interest to both art historians and Polish travel agencies, the latter for marketing purposes. Material and methods. In searching for reliable information, the focus remained on historical, icono-graphic and epigraphic sources. Archival and museum collections were consulted, as were academic libraries, periodicals and internet sites (Polish, Bulgarian, Serbian and Russian). The information thus obtained was verified on the basis of three interviews with museology specialists. Results. The information was presented in terms of a description of the location and marketing product, to address the needs of cultural tourism. Consequently, the descriptions focus primarily on the artist's surviving works and their locations in monasteries in and around Sofia. Along the way, interesting information was discovered regarding the accomplishments of his brother Juliusz, a poet, and their father August, a doctor who years earlier was exiled to Siberia along with his family. Original, newly discovered documents containing personal information about August Rozental (the painter) are also presented. Conclusion. The research confirms his Polish origins and documents the current locations of his most interesting works of art. This makes them easily accessible to both specialists and tourists interested in the subject.
Search for Immortality in Ancient and Modern Sport
There is only one real problem each human being faces: death. Nobody lives eternally. In essence, humans are mortal beings; beings-unto-death, as framed by Heidegger. But human beings are never reconciled with this fact. Since ancient times, humans have been searching for ways to become immortal and to somehow stay alive eternally. In this paper we will focus on one specific common understanding of immortality among people - immortality in memory. Since ancient Greece, success and fame have meant not only different privileges in the community but also achieving symbolic immortality. Artists, politicians, and athletes - all of them were trying to become well known. So other people would remember them after their death, praise them, and keep them in their memory. In times when transcendental immortality was not known (or accepted), this was the only means to becoming immortal. To this day, lists and statues of ancient Greek Olympic champions have survived. So in a way champions are still alive - they achieved immortality. With the rise of metaphysics in philosophy and the also the Christian understanding of transcendental immortality, the need to be famous, to stay alive in memory, has declined. But nowadays, when the faith in transcendental immortality is weak, once again the ancient notion of immortality is becoming more and more powerful. Being famous, recognized among others, staying in the memory of others - this can be one of the important motives in striving to become a champion in the field of sport.
Czech and Polish Table Tennis Players of Jewish Origin in International Competition (1926-1957)
The beginnings of the 18th century marked the birth of Jewish sport. The most famous athletes of those days were boxers, such as I. Bitton, S. Eklias, B. Aaron, D. Mendoga. Popular sports of this minority group included athletics, fencing and swimming. One of the first sport organizations was the gymnastic society Judische Turnverein Bar Kocha (Berlin - 1896).
Ping-pong as a new game in Europe developed at the turn of the 20th century. Sport and organizational activities in England were covered by two associations: the Ping Pong Association and the Table Tennis Association; they differed, for example, in the regulations used for the game. In 1902, Czeski Sport (a Czech Sport magazine) and Kurier Warszawski (Warsaw's Courier magazine) published first information about this game. In Czech Republic, Ping-pong became popular as early as the first stage of development of this sport worldwide, in 1900-1907. This was confirmed by the Ping-pong clubs and sport competitions. In Poland, the first Ping-pong sections were established in the period 1925-1930. Czechs made their debut in the world championships in London (1926). Poles played for the first time as late as in the 8th world championships in Paris (1933). Competition for individual titles of Czech champions was started in 1927 (Prague) and in 1933 in Poland (Lviv).
In the 1930s, Czechs employed an instructor of Jewish descent from Hungary, Istvan Kelen (world champion in the 1929 mixed games, studied in Prague). He contributed to the medal-winning success of Stanislaw Kolar at the world championships. Jewish players who made history in world table tennis included Trute Kleinowa (Makkabi Brno) - world champion in 1935-1937, who survived imprisonment in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi concentration camp, Alojzy Ehrlich (Hasmonea Lwów), the three-time world vice-champion (1936, 1937, 1939), also survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Ivan Andreadis (Sparta Praga), nine-time world champion, who was interned during World War II (camp in Kleinstein near Krapkowice).
Table tennis was a sport discipline that was successfully played by female and male players of Jewish origins. They made powerful representations of Austria, Hungary, Romania and Czech Republic and provided the foundation of organizationally strong national federations.
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The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour) lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, it concentrates on information pertaining to the type and quality of an average urban soldier’s gear. Although the results of this analysis are only preliminary – at this point, it is not possible to produce methodologically sound statistics –, the value of the lists as sources is readily evident, as only a smattering of the once massive quantity of actual objects has survived down to the present time.
This article offers a partial overview on fencing, as recognized through archive records, as well as French epics and romances from the twelfth to the early fourteenth century. In the twelfth century, fencing was only attested through knightly vocabulary as a way to describe actions performed during single combats involving a combination of shield and another weapon, most commonly a sword. Fencing was progressively dissociated from the knightly arts and there were even few mentions of its use by common people. There are archive records from the thirteenth century of individuals bearing the nickname “fencer”, although there is rarely enough context to be certain that they were really practicing the art. At the end of the thirteenth century, archives and narrative fiction show an established fashion for a certain form of fencing with a short round shield, the buckler. This is clearly established in London where surviving manuscripts include many regulations on fencing, however the fashion was also spread in the continent, even though it seems to be less documented.