Estonian ethnography as one of the Estonia-related disciplines was tied with Estonian nationalism from the very beginning. Defined as a science investigating mainly the material side of vanishing traditional peasant culture in the 1920s, it fitted rather well with the Soviet understanding of ethnography as a sub discipline of history. Thanks to the major cooperation projects initiated and coordinated by ethnographers from Moscow, Soviet Estonian ethnographers could continue studying Estonian traditional peasant culture. Their favourite research topics (folk costume, peasant architecture and traditional agriculture) supported Estonian national identity, but also suited the framework of Soviet ethnography. Studying contemporary (socialist) everyday life was unpopular among Estonian ethnographers because the results had to justify and support Soviet policy. They did so unwillingly, and avoided it completely if possible. Despite of some interruption during the Stalin era, ethnography managed to survive as a science of the nation in Soviet Estonia.
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much more interested in the nuances of what makes life liveable (and mournable). Her idea of the “precarious body”, in this sense, is cultural and political —focused on the things we do to survive, the performances we give so as to adhere to the social protocols of race, sexuality, ethnicity and ability. Agamben’s arguments about “bare life”, by contrast, are legal —his interests are driven by a will to critique and overcome the law and its function within the sovereign state. See Judith Butler, Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence . New York
vor Vergeltung hintan und warnten die Interviewer zu Beginn, dass ihnen nicht gefallen würde, was sie zu sagen hätten, aber sie wollten ihre Meinung sagen. Siehe dazu Berlin, Ira/Favreau, Marc/Miller, Steven F. (2007): Introduction. Slavery as Memory and History, S. xxii.
Die Narrationen sind schlaflose historische Zeugnisse trotz allem, diskursive Spuren jener Interviewereignisse selbst, die sich in ihrer Singularität einer vollständigen Überführung in Geschichte und Geschichtsschreibung widersetzen. „[F]or the first and last time, a large number of surviving
Northern countries are facing the challenges of declining human capital, and admitting immigrants, many of whom belong to religious minorities, to satisfy the demand for labour. If northern societies accept multiculturalism and immigrants, they should not disregard the cultures and religious practices (for example, ritual slaughter) of immigrants, as they need to survive and integrate as a minority community in a secular society. However, there is clash between secularism and religions permitting animal slaughter, which is prohibited by some and allowed by other European countries. Community viability and sustainability depend partly on the exercise of community beliefs and ideology that support identity behaviour. This study will present an ethnographic analysis of the religiosity related to ritual slaughter and Muslim cultural identity in the European Arctic region and explore how religious relativism and practice sustain the community and support the overall integration of the Muslim minority in the North.
relations that accompanied a patriarchal culture. In the English case, he could also ignore the problem of aboriginal minorities that have been significant in modern debates about citizenship, especially in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The task facing citizenship studies after Marshall is to recognise the diversity of forms of citizenship and the specific problems of these different traditions and then to analyse whether any form of democratic citizenship can survive the social and economic changes associated with globalisation.
In modern theories of citizenship