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U.S. would need to kill one-fourth of the Soviet population of the time and destroy over half of its industry ( Pifer et al. 2010 : p. 5). Even this was not considered enough, because one had to take into account the effect of possible Soviet first-strike capability. Thus, to ensure survivability of sufficient capabilities, each leg of the strategic triad had, independently of others, to have this capacity ( Kaplan 1980 : p. 3). The requirement of killing one-fourth of the Soviet population rests on historical experience, since in World War II, the Soviet Union
Military organizations are bureaucratic, hierarchical ( Alvinius 2013 ) and meritocratic ( Castilla and Benard 2010 ) in their design, which includes not only inherit challenges but also opportunities for the organizational members. Military organizations have survived for hundreds of years and therefore it is assumed that their design makes the organization functional, alive and proper ( Andrzejewski 1954 ). It is seldom that one associates military organizations with dysfunctional organizational aspects, which is the focus of this study
The intention of this article is to present the oldest surviving work of military art of the Greek antiquity written in the mid-fourth century B.C. by of the author known today as Aeneas Tacticus. In 1609 Isaac Casaubon, its first editor, gave it the Latin title Commentarius de toleranda obsidione, How to Survive under Siege. Aeneas Tacticus was an experienced general on the battlefield, and had an equally solid theoretical training based on treatises of warfare which undoubtedly existed before his own, but were less fortunate and have not reached us. The study of this manual reveals that Aeneas Tacticus wrote or designed to write at least five books on military themes and information exists from other sources that he might have written three more books on the subject. Thus, all these works could have formed a Corpus Aeneanum, comparable in value to Clausewitz’s famous work On War. Aeneas’s work was highly appreciated and extremely useful for commanders and strategists of the Antiquity and the Middle Ages and was used and cited by all the authors of treatises on siege until the era of pre-modern warfare.
It is vital for security experts to learn from the historical records of global climate change as to how the human society has been impacted by its consequences in the “new” Anthropocene Epoch. Some of these consequences of global climate change include the perishing of several human settlements in different parts of the globe at different times, e.g., in 1700 B.C., prolonged drought contributed to the demise of Harappan civilization in northwest India. In 1200 B.C., under a similar climatic extremity, the Mycenaean civilization in present-day Greece (as well as the Mill Creek culture of the northwestern part of the present-day US state of Iowa) perished. Why did some societies under such climatic events perish while others survived? Lack of preparedness of one society and its failure to anticipate and adapt to the extreme climatic events might have attributed to their extinction. The authors will also analyze the extinction of one European Norse society in Greenland during the Little Ice Age (about 600 years ago), as compared to the still-surviving Inuit society in the northern segment of Greenland, which faced even harsher climatic conditions during the Little Ice Age than the extinct Norsemen. This is how the adaptability and “expectation of the worst” matter for the survival of a particular community against climatic “black swan” events (Taleb, 2007). Similar impacts in terms of sea-level rise expected by the year 2100 whereby major human populations of many parts of the world are expected to lose their environmental evolutionary “niche” will be discussed. Rising temperature will not only complicate human health issues, but also will it take its toll on the staple food producing agricultural belts in some latitudinal expanse. It will also worsen the living condition of the populace living in areas where climate is marginal.
Through the Socio-Economic Systems Model provided by Vadineanu (2001), the authors will next consider the effect of extant policy-making “prisms” responding to climate change (such as the “Club of Rome” versus the “Club for Growth” visions) as concerns the ongoing process of globalization and survival of the nation-state.
The current security situation is marked an increasing competition for power at global scale, the use of power politics, and the growth of the influence of the non-state actors in a changed resource and demographic landscape. NATO and EU seem to be out of sync with the developments in the world, situation which puts their very existence into questioning. However, a closer look shows that both organisations have displayed a very high degree of versatility, re-inventing themselves to adapt to the changing environment, and surviving all the evolution so far, while other peer organisations have become history. Therefore, the main question is whether NATO and EU will overcome the existing and future challenges and continue the current positive trend in their cooperation? When considering the common history, the trend and the most recent evolutions, one can only draw a positive answer. The most significant areas of recent cooperation which indicate a definite positive trend are the adaptation of the NATO Command Structure, the development of military capabilities, and the definition of the cyberspace as an operational domain
The paper analyses the image of Maria Rosetti, the first female journalist in Romania, one of the personalities that played a crucial role for the outcome of the Revolution of 1848, and the way in which she remained in the public consciousness. Born in Guernsey, Scotland, the sister of the diplomat Effingham Grant and wife of the Romanian revolutionary Constantin Alexandru Rosetti “made the cause of Romania her own“. Despite being a foreigner, through everything she did, Maria Rosetti tried to help her adoptive country evolve and become a modern unitary state. Besides playing an active role in the escape of her husband and of other revolutionaries arrested by the Turks, she was also the mother of eight children (only four survived) in whom she instilled the most fervent patriotism. Last, but not least, the wife of C. A. Rosetti used her literary talent for pedagogical purposes in order to educate the younger generations according to the desiderata of a new Romanian society. Admired by her contemporaries and by her followers, her portrait was immortalized by C. D. Rosenthal in the famous painting “Revolutionary Romania”, becoming a symbol of the love and of the power of sacrifice for her country.